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Fig. 4 | Cardiovascular Ultrasound

Fig. 4

From: Prenatal screening of fetal ventriculoarterial connections: benefits of 4D technique in fetal heart imaging

Fig. 4

Multiplanar slicing of TOF in a fetus of 24 gestational weeks. Panels a, b, and c represent three orthogonal planes (A, transverse; B, sagittal; and C, coronal). The cardiac apex in the 4CV was oriented upwards and the reference point (indicated by the green arrow) was placed in the crux of the heart in Panel a (A). Move the reference point to the position of the outflow tracts (at the basal part of the ventricles, near the crux of the heart) in Panel a. By adjusting the position of the reference point in Panel a, a great artery could be visualized in Panel b (B). Moving the reference point to the valve (C) and then navigating along the artery (D) in Panel b, we could then confirm that aorta was originated from both left and right ventricles in Panel a. A large-sized VSD could also be identified. Navigating the reference point further along aorta (E) in Panel b, we could visualize that the pulmonary artery (characterized by the short trunk with bifurcation) was originated from the right ventricle with a thickened valve in Panel a. AO, aorta; LV, left ventricle; PA, pulmonary artery; RV, right ventricle; TOF, tetralogy of Fallot; VSD, ventricular septal defect

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