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Table 1 Baseline characteristics

From: Left ventricular outflow tract velocity time integral outperforms ejection fraction and Doppler-derived cardiac output for predicting outcomes in a select advanced heart failure cohort

  Total study population (n = 100) LVOT VTI < 8.1 cm, lowest tertile (n = 34) LVOT VTI 8.1-9.0 cm, median tertile (n = 33) LVOT VTI > 9.0 cm, highest tertile (n = 33) P-value
Clinical characteristics
 Age (years) 73.53 ± 14.7 71.26 ± 15.3 74.82 ± 15.1 74.58 ± 13.8 0.547
 Gender (% male) 72 79.4 75.8 60.6 0.194
 Diabetes 27% 29.4% 24.2% 27.3% 0.892
 Hypertension 57% 52.9% 51.5% 66.7% 0.388
 Atrial Fibrillation 68% 77% 62% 67% 0.485
 Prior revascularization 50% 56% 49% 45% 0.679
 NYHA Class      0.643
  I 1.1% 3.1% 0% 0%  
  II 41.5% 40.6% 33.3% 51.7%  
  III 45.7% 43.8% 54.5% 37.9%  
  IV 11.7% 12.5% 12.1% 10.3%  
 Smoking 14% 11.8% 10% 21.2% 0.328
 Alcohol 17% 15% 24% 12% 0.385
 Illicit drugs 4% 6% 3% 3% 0.797
Medical Therapy
 Diuretics 68.7% 72.7% 72.7% 60.6% 0.472
 ACE/ARB 57.6% 64.7% 51.5% 56.3% 0.541
 Beta blocker 84% 82.4% 84.8% 84.8% 0.949
 Digoxin 28.3% 27.3% 30.3% 27.3% 0.951
 Spironolactone 32% 35.3% 39.4% 21.2% 0.251
 Statin 45.4% 41.2% 51.6% 43.8% 0.683
 CRT 31.6% 31.3% 43.3% 21.2% 0.169
 ICD 42.9% 51.5% 50.0% 27.3% 0.084
Objective Parameters
 SBP (mmHg) 114.57 ± 16.8 111 ± 17 113 ± 16 119 ± 17 0.128
 DBP (mmHg) 72.00 ± 14.4 70 ± 16 71 ± 14 74 ± 13 0.581
 HR (beats per minute) 82.93 ± 16.3 85.6 ± 18 80.9 ± 15 82.1 ± 16 0.481
 Weight (kg) 76.6 ± 19.2 77.2 ± 16 80 ± 24 73.1 ± 17 0.391
 Body mass index 25.8 ± 5 25.8 ± 5 26.4 ± 6 25.2 ± 5 0.657
 Hgb (g/dL) 13.28 ± 2.0 13.7 ± 1.7 12.9 ± 1.7 13.2 ± 2.5 0.205
 Creatinine (mg/dL) 1.40 ± 0.6 1.51 ± 0.8 1.46 ± 0.6 1.21 ± 0.4 0.101
 Blood urea nitrogen (mg/dL) 27.0 ± 14 25.8 ± 10 30.5 ± 18 24.9 ± 13 0.221
 Glomerular filtration rate < 60 ml/min 60.2% 67.7% 51.5% 62.1% 0.403
 Sodium (mEq/L) 137 ± 4 137 ± 4 137 ± 3 138 ± 3 0.270
 Cholesterol, total (mg/dL) 149 ± 41 142 ± 35 147 ± 41 158 ± 46 0.286
 QRS > 120 msec 51.2% 61.3% 46.2% 44.4% 0.364
Ejection fraction (%) 28.9 ± 17 25.1 ± 17 26.4 ± 11 35 ± 19 0.024
Mean PA pressure (mmHg) 47.7 ± 15 47.8 ± 16 48.2 ± 13 47.1 ± 15 0.961
LV end diastolic dimension (cm) 5.81 ± 1.3 6.06 ± 1.2 5.94 ± 1.1 5.42 ± 1.5 0.092
Aortic Stenosis 11.1% 15.2% 10.0% 10.0% 0.900
Aortic Insufficiency 16.2% 24.2% 21.2% 3.0% 0.060
Tricuspid Regurgitation* 51.5% 54.5% 51.5% 48.4% 0.738
Mitral Regurgitation* 61% 55.9% 75.8% 51.5% 0.302
  1. Legend: SD standard deviation, NYHA New York Heart Association; Diuretics furosemide, toresmide, bumetanide, ACE angiotensin converting enzyme, ARB angiotensin receptor blocker, CRT cardiac resynchronization therapy, ICD implantable cardiac defibrillator, SBP systolic blood pressure, DBP diastolic blood pressure, bpm beats per minute, GFR glomerular filtration rate, PA pulmonary artery, LV left ventricle
  2. *denotes meaningful valve disease classified as greater than mild