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Table 3 Univariate and multiple variable analyses of factors related to death or LVAD placement

From: Left ventricular outflow tract velocity time integral outperforms ejection fraction and Doppler-derived cardiac output for predicting outcomes in a select advanced heart failure cohort

  Hazard ratio (95% CI) P-value
Univariate analysis   
 LVOT VTI, cm 0.729 (0.55 - 0.96) 0.024
 Age, years 1.05 (1.02 - 1.09) 0.001
 Male gender 1.66 (0.678 - 4.058) 0.245
 Diabetes 1.38 (0.65 - 2.95) 0.416
 NYHA class 2.13 (1.26 - 3.60) 0.005
 Hemoglobin, g/dL 0.876 (0.74 - 1.04) 0.107
 Blood urea nitrogen, g/dL 1.03 (1.01 - 1.05) 0.005
 Glomerular filtration rate < 60 ml/min 2.437 (1.04 - 5.71) 0.029
 Pulmonary artery pressure, mmHg 1.03 (1.01 - 1.06) 0.010
 Ejection fraction 1.01 (0.99 - 1.03) 0.179
 Doppler derived cardiac output, L/min 0.677 (0.378-1.213) 0.190
Multivariate analysis   
 Model 1: LVOT VTI + age 0.661 (0.502 – 0.871) 0.003
 Model 2: Model 1 + Pulmonary artery pressure and Ejection fraction 0.619 (0.452 – 0.849) 0.003
 Model 3: Model 2 + Blood urea nitrogen, glomerular filtration rate < 60 ml/min and NYHA class 0.590 (0.415 – 0.838) 0.003
  1. Legend: HR hazard ratio, CI confidence interval, LVAD left ventricular assist device, LVOT VTI left ventricular outflow tract velocity time integral; other abbreviations described in Table 1