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Table 2 Echocardiographic findings of PPM

From: Echocardiographic characteristics of primary malignant pericardial mesothelioma and outcomes analysis: a retrospective study

Parameters All patients (n = 64) Group based on sex P Group based on publishing year  
Male (n = 40) Female (n = 24) 1981 to 2000 (n = 22) 2001 to 2015 (n = 42) P
Pericardial effusion (n = 64)   n = 40 n = 24 0.86 n = 22 n = 42 0.48
 Mild 6 (9.4%) 3 (7.5%) 3 (12.5%)   0 (0%) 6 (14.3%)  
 Moderate 6 (9.4%) 6 (15.0%) 0 (0%)   1 (4.5%) 5 (11.9%)  
 Massive 43 (67.2%) 26 (65.0%) 17 (70.8%)   17 (77.3%) 26 (61.9%)  
 None 9 (14.1%) 5 (12.5%) 4 (16.7%)   4 (18.2%) 5 (11.9%)  
Echo-Pericardial thickening (n = 64) 12 (18.8%) 7 (17.5%) 5 (20.8%) 0.83 4 (18.2%) 8 (19.0%) 0.61
Echo- Pericardial mass (n = 64) 21 (32.8%) 13 (32.5%) 8 (33.3%) 0.94 4 (18.2%) 17 (40.5%) 0.09
Comparable Pericardial wall thickening (n = 52)a   n = 32 n = 20   n = 20 n = 32  
 Frequency on echo 9 (17.3%) 5 (15.6%) 4 (20.0%) 0.94 3 (15.0%) 6 (18.8%) 0.73
 Frequency on other exams 33 (63.5%) 21 (65.6%) 12 (60.0%) 0.72 12 (60%) 21 (65.6%) 0.77
Comparable pericardial mass (n = 55)a   n = 35 n = 20   n = 20 n = 35  
 Frequency on echo 20 (36.4%) 13(37.1%) 7 (35.0%) 0.87 4 (20.0%) 16 (38.1%) 0.06
 Frequency on other exams 32 (58.2%) 19 (54.3%) 13 (65.0%) 0.57 10 (50.0%) 22 (62.8%) 0.40
  1. aReferring to the patients with both echocardiography and at least one another examination including cardiac CT, CMR, PET-CT, exploratory thoracotomy and autopsy