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Table 2 Summary of basic TEE findings and overall hemodynamic state during three experimental models (n = 5 animals in each phase)

From: Feasibility of basic transesophageal echocardiography in hemorrhagic shock: potential applications during resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta (REBOA)

Model Timing Shock Index Pulmonary Artery Pressure Mean Arterial Pressure LV ventricular volume RV ventricular volume LV systolic function RV systolic function Hemodynamic state
2 h Pre-bleed 0.63 37/27 93.5 (13.6) Normal Normal Normal Normal Normal
REBOA inflation 1.24* 47*/26 111.7 (29.1) Hypovolemic Normal Increased Normal Empty
3 h Pre-bleed 0.58 35/26 115.3 (13.2) Normal Normal Normal Normal Normal
REBOA inflation 0.96* 38/29 114.3 (14.8) Hypovolemic Normal Increased Normal Empty; mild diastolic failure
4 h Pre-bleed 0.56 33/24 116.6 (31.2) Normal Normal Normal Normal Normal
REBOA inflation 0.91* 38/27 100.3 (20.6) Hypovolemic Normal Increased Normal Empty; mild diastolic failure
  1. Basic TEE exams were performed pre-bleed and post-bleed during REBOA inflation. Findings are summarized qualitatively for all animals; hemodynamic findings are described with means and standard deviation. Shock index = heart rate / systolic blood pressure. *P < 0.01