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Table 1 The pathophysiological and methodological basis of the IQ-SE protocol

From: The new clinical standard of integrated quadruple stress echocardiography with ABCD protocol

  RWMA B-lines LVCR CFVR
ABCD protocol A, Asynergy B, B-lines C, Contractility D, Doppler
Target Epicardial Coronary Stenosis Lung Myocardium LAD stenosis and small vessels
Variable Ischemia Water Force Flow reserve
Echocardiography 2D LUS 2-D PWD
Best projection 4-,3–2 ch 4-site scan 4- and 2-ch Modified 3-ch
Imaging time Minutes Seconds Seconds Minutes
Analysis time Seconds Seconds Seconds Seconds
Feasibility > 90% Near 100% > 95% > 80%
Evidence Excellent Initial Moderate Good
Reading Qualitative Semi-quantitative Quantitative Quantitative
Key parameter WMSI B-lines score ESV Peak velocity
Abnormal Cut-off > 1.0 ≥ 2.0 < 2.0a < 2.0
  1. a< 1.1 in vasodilator stress