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Fig. 2 | Cardiovascular Ultrasound

Fig. 2

From: Reliability of three-dimensional color flow Doppler and two-dimensional pulse wave Doppler transthoracic echocardiography for estimating cardiac output after cardiac surgery

Fig. 2

CO assessment using 3DCF transthoracic echocardiography. 3DCF images were obtained in the apical long axis view (panel a). With the aortic valve (AV) at the center (green dot line in panel b and c), the reference images were rotated and adjusted to clearly show the region of interest from the left ventricular outflow tract to the proximal part of the aorta; systole, diastole, timing of AV opening (AVO) and closing (AVC) were automatically recognized by the software according to the ECG (panel d); panels a and e show that the 3D volume color flow passes vertically through the sampling plane (the yellow line in panels b and c, the yellow plate in panel a), and the size of the sampling plane is just big enough for all of the outflow color signals to pass through; panel d shows the flow–time curves of three consecutive cardiac cycles generated by the software

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