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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of the study population, according to remodeling pattern at follow-up (Mean/Median and 95% confidence intervals, 95% CI)

From: The assessment of pressure-volume relationship during exercise stress echocardiography predicts left ventricular remodeling and eccentric hypertrophy in patients with chronic heart failure

Variable Overall population n = 155 No remodeling n = 121 Remodeling n = 34 p-value
Age (yrs) 62 [60–64] 62 [59–65] 61 [59–64] 0.1
Male gender (%) 128 (83%) 95 (79%) 33 (97%) < 0.0001
Body mass index(kg/m2) 26.2 [25.7–27.3] 26.1 [25.4–28.7] 26.2 [25.6–27.5] 0.10
Body surface area (m2) 1.9 [1.86–1.93] 1.9 [1.8–2.0] 1.9 [1.86–1.95] 0.10
Coronary artery disease (%) 72 (46%) 51 (42%) 21 (62%) 0.10
Diabetes (%) 28 (18%) 22 (18%) 6 (18%) 0.010
Hypertension (%) 63 (41%) 50 (41%) 13 (38%) 0.003
HF history (%) 87 (56%) 64 (53%) 23 (68%) 0.10
CKDa (%) 51 (33%) 33 (27%) 18 (53%) 0.005
NYHA Class I 47 (30%) 43 (35.5%) 4 (12%) < 0.0001
NYHA Class II 65 (42%) 49 (40.5%) 16 (47%) 0.0001
NYHA Class III 43 (28%) 29 (24%) 14 (41%) 0.01
BNP (pg/mL) 366 [289–428] 289 [216–362] 613 [451–775] 0.0001
ICD baseline (%) 64 (41%) 40 (33%) 24 (71%) 0.30
CRT baseline (%) 17 (11%) 12 (10%) 5 (15%) 0.04
Mitral regurgitationb (%) 51 (33%) 33 (27%) 18 (53%) 0.005
Digoxin 57 (36.7%) 40 (33%) 17 (50%) 0.14
Diuretics 134 (86%) 100 (83%) 34 (100%) 0.18
ACE inhibitors or ARB 147 (91%) 116 (94%) 31 (96%) 0.47
MRI 102 (66%) 74 (61%) 28 (82%) 0.01
Beta-blockers 109 (70%) 75 (62%) 34 (100%) 0.35
  1. Legend: ACE, angiotensin converter enzyme; ARB, angiotensin receptor blockers; BNP, B-type natriuretic peptide; CKD, chronic kidney disease; CRT, cardiac resynchronization therapy; HF, heart failure; ICD, implantable cardioverter defibrillator; MRI: mineralcorticoid receptor inhibitors; NYHA, New York Heart Association
  2. a Chronic kidney disease was defined as eGFR < 60 mL/min/1.73m 2
  3. b More than mild mitral regurgitation