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Table 3 Univariate and multivariate predictors of adverse left ventricular remodeling

From: The assessment of pressure-volume relationship during exercise stress echocardiography predicts left ventricular remodeling and eccentric hypertrophy in patients with chronic heart failure

Variable Univariate analysis OR [95% CI] p-value Multivariate analysis OR [95% CI] p-value
Age (yrs) 0.9 [0.9–1] 0.2   
Gender Male (%) 1.5 [1.3–31] 0.06   
Diabetes Mellitus (%) 0.8 [0.9–1.2] 0.2   
Hypertension (%) 0.9 [0.8–1.1] 0.3   
Coronary artery disease (%) 2.2 [1.01–4.8] 0.001 2.64 [1.04–6.7] 0.04
CKDa 1.7 [1.4–4.3] 0.03   
NYHA class (%) 2 [1.2–3.5] 0.05   
BNP (pg/ml) 1.0 [1–1.01] 0.04   
Mitral regurgiation (%) 3 [1.3–6.5] 0.05   
Rest E/e’ 1.05 [0.9–1.2] 0.06   
Rest ejection fraction (%) 1.13 [0.7–1.8] 0.59   
Peak ejection fraction (%) 0.50 [0.3–0.8] 0.0059   
Rest end-diastolic volume index (ml/m2) 1.0 [0.9–1.2] 0.97   
Peak end-diastolic volume index (ml/m2) 1.17 [1.04–1.3] 0.07   
Rest end-systolic volume index (ml/m2) 0.98 [0.8–1.2] 0.91   
Peak end-systolic volume index (ml/m2) 1.81 [1.2–3.1] 0.05   
Baseline LVMi (g/m2) 0.99 [0.97–1.01] 0.81   
Baseline patterns of LV geometry 1.73 [1.3–2.9] 0.04   
Peak cardiac power output-to-mass (Watt/100 g) 0.04 [0.02–0.19] 0.01   
Peak LV elastance (mmHg/ml/m2) 8.3 [3.4–25] < 0.0001 12.5 [4.5–33] < 0.0001
  1. Legend: BNP, B-type natriuretic peptide; CKD, chronic kidney disease; E/e’, ratio of mitral E peak velocity and averaged e’ velocity; LV, left ventricular; LVMi, left ventricular mass indexed; NYHA, New York Heart Association
  2. aChronic kidney disease was defined as eGFR< 60 mL/min/1.73m2