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Table 3 Echocardiographic data

From: General anesthesia and positive pressure ventilation suppress left and right ventricular myocardial shortening in patients without myocardial disease – a strain echocardiography study

  Awake patient Anaesthesia + PPV p-value
Left ventricular global longitudinal strain (%) −19.1 ± 2.3 −17.3 ± 2.9 < 0.001
Left ventricular end-diastolic volume index (ml/m2) 57 ± 18 47 ± 18 0.012
Left ventricular end-systolic volume index (ml/m2) 23 ± 8 20 ± 9 0.084
Time velocity integral of the LV outflow tract (cm) 18.6 ± 3.0 17.3 ± 2.9 < 0.001
Left ventricular ejection fraction (%) 59 ± 8 56 ± 10 0.130
E-max (cm/sec) 69 ± 15 57 ± 13 < 0.001
A-max (cm/sec) 59 ± 19 43 ± 14 0.001
Left ventricular isovolumic relaxation time (ms) 69 ± 17 67 ± 21 0.781
Right ventricular free wall strain (%) −26.8 ± 3.9 −24.1 ± 4.2 0.001
Tricuspid annular peak systolic velocity (cm/sec) 11.4 ± 3.0 9.2 ± 2.4 < 0.001
Tricuspid annular plane tissue doppler systolic excursion (mm) 2.4 ± 0.5 1.9 ± 0.4 < 0.001
Right ventricular end-diastolic area index (cm2/m2) 13 ± 3 12 ± 2 0.007
Right ventricular end-systolic area index (cm2/m2) 7 ± 2 7 ± 1 0.782
Right ventricular fractional area change (%) 46 ± 7 39 ± 7 0.013
  1. PPV; positive pressure ventilation, E-max; maximum flow velocity during early LV diastolic filling, A-max; maximum flow velocity during late diastolic LV filling