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Table 2 Arterial and echocardiographic characteristics of 356 participants by sex

From: Area of the pressure-strain loop during ejection as non-invasive index of left ventricular performance: a population study

Characteristic Men (n = 197) Women (n = 159) P value
Arterial characteristics
 AP, mm Hg 10.3 ± 8.00 15.3 ± 9.55 < 0.0001
 Central PP, mm Hg 40.3 ± 12.1 44.5 ± 14.3 0.0059
 PWV, m/sa 8.18 ± 1.90 7.94 ± 1.94 0.30
LV end-diastolic dimensions
 Internal diameter, cm 5.27 ± 0.40 4.85 ± 0.35 < 0.0001
 Septal wall thickness, cm 1.05 ± 0.13 0.92 ± 0.12 < 0.0001
 Posterior wall thickness, cm 0.99 ± 0.11 0.88 ± 0.094 < 0.0001
 Relative wall thickness 0.39 ± 0.053 0.37 ± 0.043 0.0041
 LV mass index, g/m2 101.9 ± 20.8 86.2 ± 15.4 < 0.0001
Echocardiographic volumes
 LA volume index, ml/m2 28.0 ± 8.46 26.1 ± 6.70 0.021
 LV EDV index, ml/m2 55.9 ± 9.42 46.6. ± 8.12 < 0.0001
 LV ESV index, ml/m2 23.0 ± 4.57 18.3 ± 3.83 < 0.0001
 LV Stroke volume, ml 66.4 ± 13.6 50.0 ± 11.7 < 0.0001
 LV Ejection fraction, % 58.9 ± 4.99 60.7 ± 5.11 0.0010
LV diastolic function
 E peak, cm/s 63.1 ± 13.9 69.3 ± 14.9 < 0.0001
 A peak, cm/s 55.3 ± 14.1 63.0 ± 15.4 < 0.0001
 E/A ratio 1.22 ± 0.44 1.18 ± 0.44 0.33
 e’ peak, cm/s 9.97 ± 3.29 10.0 ± 3.15 0.94
 a’ peak, cm/s 9.76 ± 2.09 9.31 ± 1.88 0.036
 E/e’ ratio 6.76 ± 1.87 7.42 ± 2.32 0.0038
LV strain
 Global LS 18.5 ± 1.84 20.3 ± 1.87 < 0.0001
Ejection work density
 EWD, Pa 635.8 ± 179.6 782.3 ± 224.7 < 0.0001
 EWD / RWT, Pa 1665.2 ± 498.4 2109.1 ± 592.1 < 0.0001
  1. Values are mean (±SD). aData on arterial stiffness was available in 157 men and 117 women. AP indicates augmentation pressure, EDV end-diastolic volume, ESV end-systolic volume, EWD ejection work density, LA left atrial, LS longitudinal strain, LV left ventricular, PP pulse pressure, PWV pulse wave velocity