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Table 4 Multivariable-adjusted associations between ejection work density and echocardiographic indexes of left atrial and left ventricular geometry

From: Area of the pressure-strain loop during ejection as non-invasive index of left ventricular performance: a population study

  Ejection work density (Pa)  
  All (n = 356) Men (n = 197) Women (n = 159)  
LV and LA geometry Parameter estimate (95% CI) P value Parameter estimate (95% CI) P value Parameter estimate (95% CI) P value P int
LV dimensions
 Internal diameter, + 0.43 cm 10.7 (−14.2 to 35.6) 0.40 16.7 (−11.8 to 45.2) 0.25 10.0 (−34.9 to 55.0) 0.66 0.87
 Septal wall, + 0.14 cm −7.99 (−32.8 to 16.9) 0.53 − 23.9 (−51.4 to 3.62) 0.088 23.4 (−22.6 to 69.5) 0.32 0.0063
 Posterior wall, + 0.12 cm −14.8 (−40.2 to 10.6) 0.25 −34.3 (−61.1 to −7.42) 0.013 28.3 (− 22.5 to 79.1) 0.27 0.0014
 RWT, + 0.05 −13.2 (− 34.3 to 7.85) 0.22 −29.9 (−53.1 to − 6.66) 0.012 12.3 (− 27.0 to 51.6) 0.54 0.0069
 LV mass index, + 20 g/m2 6.06 (− 16.4 to 28.5) 0.60 −11.0 (−35.8 to 13.8) 0.38 46.1 (3.39 to 88.7) 0.035 0.0039
Volumes
 LA volume index, + 7.8 ml/m2 41.2 (19.2 to 63.2) 0.0003 23.9 (1.73 to 49.6) 0.067 76.2 (37.7 to 114.6) 0.0001 0.0019
 EDV index, + 10 ml/m2 23.0 (1.18 to 44.8) 0.039 12.3 (−13.1 to 37.7) 0.34 43.8 (5.30 to 82.3) 0.026 0.14
 ESV index, + 5 ml/m2 10.3 (−12.1 to 32.7) 0.37 −8.09 (−33.6 to 17.4) 0.53 39.8 (−0.90 to 80.5) 0.055 0.031
 Stroke volume, + 15 ml 27.9 (3.49 to 52.4) 0.025 25.6 (−1.69 to 52.8) 0.066 37.8 (−8.22 to 83.9) 0.11 0.73
 Ejection fraction, + 5.1% 11.5 (−7.26 to 30.2) 0.23 23.9 (1.16 to 46.6) 0.040 1.19 (−30.1 to 32.4) 0.94 0.13
  1. The parameter estimates (95% confidence interval) indicate the change in EWD per 1 standard deviation increase in the echocardiographic index. All parameter estimates accounted for the variance explained by age, sex, heart rate and body height and weight. Pint represents the P value for an interaction between each LV index and sex in predicting EWD. Adjustment for BSA-indexed measures did not include body height and weight. BSA indicates body surface area, EDV end-diastolic volume, ESV end-systolic volume, LA left atrial, PWT posterior wall thickness