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Table 3 Effects of age and gender on reference limits – left atrium, right chambers, aorta

From: Normative reference ranges for echocardiographic chamber dimensions in a healthy Central European population: results from the Czech post-MONICA survey

Variable Age effect (per 10 years) Age effect
p value
Gender effect (male vs. female) Gender effect
p value
Left atrium
 LA diameter M-mode (mm) 0.7 [− 0.2, 1.7] 0.138 4.3 [2.1, 6.6] <  0.001
 LA diameter M-mode, BSA (mm/m2) 1.0 [0.5, 1.4] <  0.001 − 1.3 [− 2.2, − 0.3] 0.009
 LA vertical diameter (mm) −0.2 [− 1.4, 1.0] 0.752 4.2 [0.2, 8.2] 0.042
 LA horizontal diameter (mm) 1.1 [−0.0, 2.3] 0.056 1.6 [−1.0, 4.2] 0.232
 LA volume (ml) 1.1 [−2.7, 5.0] 0.571 15.4 [4.0, 26.9] 0.008
 LA volume, BSA (ml/m2) 1.6 [−0.3, 3.5] 0.097 0.2 [−4.8, 5.3] 0.924
Right ventricle
 RV basal diameter (mm) 0.9 [−0.2, 1.9] 0.109 6.9 [3.7, 10.0] <  0.001
 RV basal diameter, BSA (mm/m2) 0.4 [−0.0, 0.9] 0.066 0.1 [−1.0, 1.2] 0.839
 Tricuspid s’ (m/s) −0.2 [− 0.6, 0.2] 0.261 − 0.7 [− 1.6, 0.3] 0.194
 TAPSE (mm) − 0.6 [− 1.5, 0.2] 0.144 −0.0 [−2.3, 2.2] 0.992
Right atrium
 RA vertical diameter (mm) −0.0 [− 0.7, 0.7] 1.000 5.7 [4.1, 7.3] <  0.001
 RA horizontal diameter (mm) −0.5 [−1.4, 0.3] 0.202 6.3 [4.3, 8.3] <  0.001
 RA vertical diameter, BSA (mm/m2) 0.6 [0.1, 1.0] 0.009 −1.6 [−2.4, −0.8] <  0.001
 RA horizontal diameter, BSA (mm/m2) 0.1 [−0.4, 0.6] 0.663 −0.5 [−1.8, 0.8] 0.443
Aorta
 Aortic root (mm) 0.8 [−0.1, 1.8] 0.084 5.5 [3.4, 7.7] <  0.001
 Aortic root, BSA (mm/m2) 0.4 [0.0, 0.8] 0.045 −0.3 [−1.2, 0.7] 0.589
  1. Values depict effect size on reference limit (95th or 5th percentile of the healthy subset) with 95% confidence interval
  2. BSA body surface area, LA left atrium, RA right atrium, RV right ventricle, TAPSE tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion