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Table 5 Reference limits for left atrium, right chambers and aorta

From: Normative reference ranges for echocardiographic chamber dimensions in a healthy Central European population: results from the Czech post-MONICA survey

Variable Males Females
Abnormal Moderately abnormal Severely abnormal Abnormal Moderately abnormal Severely abnormal
Left atrium
 LA diameter M-mode (mm) >  46 >  53 >  56 >  41 >  48 >  51
 LA diameter M-mode, BSA (mm/m2) >  23 >  25 >  27 >  24 >  26 >  27
 LA vertical diameter (mm) >  61 >  67 >  71 >  56 >  61 >  63
 LA horizontal diameter (mm) >  48 >  52 >  54 >  46 >  50 >  54
 LA volume (ml) >  86 >  108 >  123 >  70 >  90 >  105
 LA volume, BSA (ml/m2) >  42 >  52 >  59 >  40 >  48 >  53
Right ventricle
 RV basal diameter (mm) >  46 >  47 >  48 >  39 >  42 >  43
 RV basal diameter, BSA (mm/m2) >  23 (>  23)a (>  24)a >  23 (>  24)a (>  24)a
 Tricuspid s’ (m/s) <  9.0 <  8.0 <  7.0 <  9.0 <  8.0 <  7.7
 TAPSE (mm) <  19 <  17 <  15 <  19 <  18 <  17
Right atrium
 RA vertical diameter (mm) >  57 >  61 >  65 >  51 >  56 >  58
 RA horizontal diameter (mm) >  50 (>  50)a (>  53)a >  42 >  45 >  47
 RA vertical diameter, BSA (mm/m2) >  28 >  30 >  32 >  30 >  31 >  33
 RA horizontal diameter, BSA (mm/m2) >  25 (>  25)a (>  26)a >  25 >  26 >  27
Aorta
 Aortic root (mm) >  40 >  42 >  43 >  34 >  36 >  37
 Aortic root, BSA (mm/m2) >  19 >  20 >  21 >  20 >  21 >  22
  1. Mildly abnormal is defined as >95th or < 5th percentile of the healthy subset, moderately abnormal as > 97.5th or < 2.5th percentile and severely abnormal as >99th or < 1st percentile of the whole sample
  2. BSA body surface area, LA left atrium, RA right atrium, RV right ventricle, TAPSE tricuspid annular systolic plane excursion
  3. aNot recommended due to negligible difference between the healthy subset and general population, see Limitations