Skip to main content

Table 1 Demographic data and echocardiographic parameters

From: Comparison of the prognostic values of three calculation methods for echocardiographic relative wall thickness in acute decompensated heart failure

 OverallRWTPWbRWTIVS + PWbRWTIVSb
LowHighP valueLowHighP valueLowHighP value
n = 385n = 193n = 192n = 193n = 192n = 193n = 192
Age, y81 [70, 88]80 [68, 87]83 [73, 89]0.02180 [69, 87]83 [73, 89]0.06780 [69, 87]83 [73, 88]0.082
Mele, n (%)181/385 (47)104/193 (54)77/192 (40)0.00899/193 (51)82/192 (43)0.198/193 (51)83/192 (43)0.15
Height, cm154 ± 10156 ± 9.7153 ± 9.90.002155 ± 10153 ± 100.048155 ± 10153 ± 100.15
Body weight., kg60 ± 1660 ± 1560 ± 170.9561 ± 1559 ± 170.4560 ± 1659 ± 160.59
Body mass index, kg/m222.8 ± 4.622.6 ± 4.523.0 ± 4.80.4222.8 ± 4.622.8 ± 4.70.9922.9 ± 4.722.8 ± 4.60.87
Body surface area, m21.51 ± 0.221.53 ± 0.221.49 ± 0.230.111.53 ± 0.221.50 ± 0.230.21.52 ± 0.221.50 ± 0.220.3
Get With The Guideline score38 ± 738 ± 638 ± 80.9938 ± 738 ± 80.5538 ± 738 ± 80.86
Hospital stay, days13 [8, 20]13 [8, 21]12 [8, 19]0.5513 [8, 21]12 [8, 19]0.3513 [8, 20]12 [8, 19]0.76
Past medical history, n (%)
 Hypertension187/385 (49)92/193 (48)95/192 (50)0.7692/193 (48)95/192 (50)0.7693/193 (48)94/192 (49)0.92
 Diabetes mellitus132/385 (34)68/193 (35)64/192 (33)0.7575/193 (39)57/192 (30)0.06880/193 (42)52/192 (27)0.004
 Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease18/385 (4.7)7/193 (3.6)11/192 (5.7)0.357/193 (3.6)11/192 (5.7)0.358/193 (4.1)10/192 (5.2)0.64
 Old myocardial infarction62/385 (16)37/193 (19)25/192 (13)0.1335/193 (18)27/192 (14)0.3334/193 (18)28/192 (15)0.49
Echocardiographic parameters
 RWTPWa0.36 ± 0.120.28 ± 0.050.45 ± 0.12<  0.0010.28 ± 0.050.44 ± 0.12<  0.0010.30 ± 0.070.43 ± 0.13<  0.001
 RWTIVS + PWa0.37 ± 0.130.29 ± 0.060.45 ± 0.12<  0.0010.28 ± 0.050.46 ± 0.12<  0.0010.29 ± 0.060.46 ± 0.12<  0.001
 RWTIVSa0.38 ± 0.140.30 ± 0.090.46 ± 0.15<  0.0010.29 ± 0.060.48 ± 0.14<  0.0010.28 ± 0.060.48 ± 0.13<  0.001
 IVSth, mm9.4 ± 2.48.5 ± 2.010.4 ± 2.4<  0.0018.1 ± 1.810.7 ± 2.2<  0.0017.9 ± 1.511.0 ± 2.1<  0.001
 PWth, mm9.0 ± 2.17.8 ± 1.310.3 ± 2.0<  0.0018.1 ± 1.410 ± 2.2<  0.0018.3 ± 1.69.8 ± 2.3<  0.001
 LVDd, mm52 ± 9.757.1 ± 8.846.8 ± 7.8<  0.00157.7 ± 8.246.2 ± 7.6<  0.00157 ± 8.846.8 ± 7.8<  0.001
 LVEF, (%)47 ± 1741 ± 1651 ± 16<  0.00139 ± 1652 ± 16<  0.00140 ± 1651 ± 16<  0.001
 HFpEF (LVEF ≥ 50%), n (%)157/383 (41)56/193 (29)101/190 (53)<  0.00147/193 (24)110/190 (58)<  0.00150/193 (26)107/190 (56)<  0.001
 LVM, g168 [131, 211]173 [135, 211]164 [132, 208]0.51174 [138, 211]164 [123, 208]0.18170 [135, 207]166 [130, 212]0.9
 LVEDV, mL130 [92, 167]160 [130, 194]102 [79, 126]<  0.001160 [130, 194]97 [74, 124]<  0.001160 [124, 194]102 [79, 130]<  0.001
 LVM/LVEDV1.43 ± 0.561.10 ± 0.231.75 ± 0.61<  0.0011.08 ± 0.201.77 ± 0.59<  0.0011.09 ± 0.211.76 ± 0.6<  0.001
 E wave, cm/sec97 ± 2997 ± 3097 ± 280.9495 ± 2899 ± 290.3798 ± 3096 ± 280.58
 A wave, cm/sec76 ± 3270 ± 2982 ± 340.01173 ± 2979 ± 340.1374 ± 3077 ± 330.57
 E/A1.21 [0.84, 1.83]1.29 [0.89, 2.04]1.15 [0.82, 1.68]0.181.21 [0.84, 1.84]1.21 [0.86, 1.81]0.811.22 [0.84, 1.83]1.17 [0.85, 1.83]0.6
 Deceleration time, ms150 [123, 195]150 [121, 196]150 [128, 192]0.49149 [119, 185]150 [129, 200]0.043147 [118, 181]152 [129, 201]0.013
 Aortic valve stenosis, n (%)29/385 (7.5)7/193 (3.6)22/192 (12)0.0048/193 (4.1)21/192 (11)0.0128/193 (4.1)21/192 (11)0.012
 Aortic valve regurgitation, n (%)24/385 (6.2)14/193 (7.3)10/192 (5.2)0.5314/193 (7.3)10/192 (5.2)0.5311/193 (5.7)13/192 (6.8)0.68
 Mitral valve regurgitation, n (%)59/385 (15)39/193 (20)20/192 (10)0.0140/193 (21)19/192 (9.9)0.00441/193 (21)18/192 (9.4)0.002
Laboratory data
 Blood urea nitrogen, mg/dL24 [17, 35]24 [17, 34]24 [17, 36]0.7724 [17, 35]24 [17, 35]0.6724 [17, 36]23 [17, 35]0.76
 Creatinine, mg/dL1.14 [0.81, 1.52]1.15 [0.83, 1.54]1.09 [0.79, 1.51]0.311.18 [0.83, 1.56]1.09 [0.79, 1.50]0.221.17 [0.83, 1.55]1.07 [0.79, 1.50]0.19
 Hemoglobin, g/dL12.0 ± 2.412.0 ± 2.411.9 ± 2.40.8411.9 ± 2.412.0 ± 2.40.7811.9 ± 2.512 ± 2.30.68
 Brain natriuretic peptide, pg/mL666 [427, 1266]737 [449, 1376]638 [403, 1155]0.056765 [472, 1376]636 [401, 1092]0.026683 [437, 1349]645 [413, 1190]0.28
Medication, n (%)
 ACE-I and/or ARB124/285 (32)71/193 (37)53/192 (28)0.06967/193 (35)57/192 (30)0.3466/193 (34)58/192 (30)0.47
 Beta blocker153/385 (40)78/193 (40)75/192 (39)0.06975/193 (39)78/192 (41)0.874/193 (38)79/192 (41)0.65
Hemodynamic data
 Systolic blood pressure, mmHg132 ± 26128 ± 24135 ± 290.006131 ± 24133 ± 290.35130 ± 24134 ± 290.13
 Diastolic blood pressure, mmHg78 ± 2175 ± 1973 ± 170.00974 ± 1877 ± 210.1774 ± 1877 ± 210.1
 Heart rate, bpm84 ± 2183 ± 2184 ± 210.8183 ± 1984 ± 220.6483 ± 1983 ± 220.78
  1. A wave, late mitral valve inflow velocity; ACE-I angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor; ARB angiotensin receptor blocker; E wave, early mitral valve inflow velocity; IVSth interventricular septum thickness; LVEDV left ventricular end diastolic volume; LVDd left ventricular internal dimension at end-diastole; LVEF left ventricular ejection fraction; LVM left ventricular mass; PWth posterior wall thickness; RWT relative wall thickness
  2. aRWT was the ratio of left ventricular wall thickness to LVDd. Left ventricular wall thickness was measured at interventricular septum as IVSth and posterior wall as PWth. Three measurement methods to compute RWT were as follows; RWTPW = 2 × PWth/LVDd, RWTIVS + PW = (PWth + IVSth)/LVDd, and RWTIVS = 2 × IVSth/LVDd
  3. bThe patients were divided into two groups based on the median of RWTPW, RWTIVS + PW, and RWTIVS