Skip to main content

Table 4 ESE parameters and normal values

From: Cardiopulmonary exercise testing and echocardiographic exam: an useful interaction

VariablesMeaningNormal values
Δ LVEFContractile reserve> 5%
ΔGLSContractile reserve> 2%
ΔSVContractile reserve>  20%
Peak E/e’Elevated LV filling pressure during stress> 15
Peak PAPsMaximal pulmonary systolic pressure during stress>  60 mmHg
ΔEROAChanges in mitral regurgitation severity during time< 10 mm3
ΔTransmitral MPGChanges in transmitral pressure gradient during stress< 15 mmHg
ΔTransaortic MPGChanges in transaortic pressure gradient during stress<  20 mmHg
LVOT Maximal Peak GradientIn case of LVOT obstruction it reflects pathological< 50 mmHg – low prognostic impact
  1. LVEF Left ventricular ejection fraction, GLS Global longitudinal strain, SV Stroke volume, EROA Effective regurgitant orifice area, MPG Mean pressure gradient, LVOT Left ventricular output tract