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Table 1 Baseline Characteristics, Catheterization Data, and Echocardiographic Variables

From: Left atrial reservoir strain combined with E/E' as a better single measure to predict elevated LV filling pressures in patients with coronary artery disease

Characteristic/ VariableControl
(n = 30)
All Patients With CAD
(n = 60)
Patients With CADP Value,
Control vs. CAD
P Value,
group I vs. group II
LVEDP≤15 mmHg
(group I, n = 27)
LVEDP>15 mmHg
(group II, n = 33)
Baseline Characteristics
 Age, y53 ± 756 ± 958 ± 855 ± 100.190.19
 Male, n (%)20(66.7)48(80.0)21(77.8)27(81.8)0.720.70
 HR, beats/min64 ± 966 ± 967 ± 1066 ± 80.250.60
 Systolic BP, mmHg119 ± 10128 ± 20127 ± 24128 ± 160.020.79
 Diastolic BP, mmHg74 ± 579 ± 1177 ± 1080 ± 120.000.30
 BMI, kg/m225.0 ± 1.525.8 ± 2.825.7 ± 2.925.8 ± 2.80.140.87
Medical history, n (%)
 Diabetes30(50.0)13(48.1)17(51.5)0.41
 Hypertension39(65.0)18(66.7)21(63.6)0.81
 Dyslipidemia53(88.3)24(88.9)29(87.9)0.74
 Prior MI26(43.3)12(44.4)14(42.4)0.66
 Mild MR10(16.7)4(14.8)6(18.2)0.96
  ≥ Moderate MR1(1.7)1(3.0)
CAD: vessel involved, n (%)
 Single vessel16(26.7)7(25.9)9(27.3)0.91
 Multiple vessels44(73.3)20(74.1)24(72.7)0.91
Culprit vessel, n (%)
 LMCA8(13.3)3(11.1)5(15.2)0.94
 LAD54(90.0)23(85.2)31(93.9)0.49
 RCA38(63.3)17(63.0)21(63.6)0.96
 LCx40(66.7)19(70.4)21(63.6)0.58
Coronary dominance, n (%)
 Right51(85.0)23(85.2)28(84.8)1.00
 Left5(8.3)2(7.4)3(9.1)1.00
 Balanced4(6.7)2(7.4)2(6.1)1.00
Medication, n (%)
 β-Blockers52(86.7)24(88.9)28(84.8)0.94
 Antiplatelet drugs60(100.0)27(100.0)33(100.0)
 ACEI/ARBs55(91.7)25(92.6)30(90.9)1.00
 CCBs32(53.3)15(55.6)17(51.5)0.76
 Loop diuretics16(26.7)6(22.2)10(30.3)0.48
 Statins56(93.3)25(92.6)31(93.9)1.00
 PCI, n (%)38(63.3)17(63.0)21(63.6)0.96
 CABG, n (%)10(16.7)5(18.5)5(15.2)1.00
Catheterization Data
 LVEDP, mmHg18.9 ± 7.811.9 ± 2.424.6 ± 5.80.00
Conventional Echocardiographic Variables
 TR peak velocity
>  2.8 m/s, n (%)
5(8.3)1(3.7)4(12.1)0.48
 Mitral E, cm/s75.3 ± 12.179.4 ± 15.979.6 ± 20.279.3 ± 11.70.290.95
 Mitral A, cm/s65.3 ± 14.971.7 ± 16.869.9 ± 15.573.2 ± 17.90.130.46
 Mitral E/A ratio1.21 ± 0.341.16 ± 0.331.17 ± 0.331.15 ± 0.340.570.78
 DT, ms166 ± 20178 ± 21178 ± 21177 ± 210.030.87
 E′septal, cm/s9.2 ± 1.86.7 ± 1.57.2 ± 1.66.2 ± 1.30.000.01
 E′lateral, cm/s12.3 ± 2.29.4 ± 2.79.9 ± 2.89.0 ± 2.50.000.18
 E′mean, cm/s10.8 ± 2.08.1 ± 1.98.6 ± 2.07.6 ± 1.70.000.052
 E/E′septal8.4 ± 1.612.3 ± 3.011.3 ± 2.913.1 ± 2.90.000.02
 E/E′lateral6.3 ± 1.39.0 ± 2.78.4 ± 2.69.4 ± 2.80.000.18
 E/E′mean7.1 ± 1.410.3 ± 2.69.6 ± 2.410.8 ± 2.60.000.04
 LAEF (%)71.2 ± 8.767.3 ± 6.569.1 ± 5.765.8 ± 6.80.040.05
 LAEF-active (%)50.8 ± 9.551.4 ± 8.053.6 ± 6.749.7 ± 8.60.780.06
 LAEF-passive (%)40.7 ± 15.732.4 ± 9.033.1 ± 9.731.8 ± 8.50.030.56
 LAVI, ml/m222.1 ± 8.331.7 ± 5.730.1 ± 4.733.0 ± 6.20.000.04
 LVMI,g/m275.4 ± 22.0103.5 ± 24.9102.9 ± 27.4104.0 ± 23.20.000.88
 LVEF, %62.8 ± 3.161.4 ± 3.161.6 ± 3.261.2 ± 2.90.090.66
2D-STE Variables
 LVGLS (%)−20.2 ± 1.6−19.0 ± 1.8−19.5 ± 1.8−18.6 ± 1.70.010.07
 LASr (%)28.2 ± 4.023.0 ± 5.125.6 ± 5.420.9 ± 3.70.000.00
 LAScd (%)−15.2 ± 4.0−10.5 ± 3.7−11.5 ± 4.1−9.6 ± 3.20.000.06
 LASct (%)−13.0 ± 2.2−12.4 ± 3.5−13.9 ± 3.9−11.2 ± 2.60.450.00
 LASr/E/E′septal(%)3.6 ± 1.32.0 ± 0.62.4 ± 0.61.7 ± 0.50.000.00
  1. ACEI Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors; ARBs Angiotensin II receptor blockers;
  2. BMI Body mass index; BP Blood pressure; CAD Coronary artery disease; CCBs Calcium channel blockers; CABG Coronary artery bypass graft; DT Deceleration time; E/E′septal Ratio of early-diastolic transmitral flow velocity to tissue Doppler early-diastolic septal mitral annular velocity HR Heart rate; LAD Left anterior descending artery; LAEF Left atrial total emptying fraction; LAEF-active Left atrial active emptying fraction; LAEF-passive Left atrial passive emptying fraction; LAScd Left atrial conduit strain; LASct Left atrial contraction strain; LASr LA reservoir strain; LAVI LA maximal volume index; LCx Left circumflex artery; LMCA Left main coronary artery; LVEDP Left ventricular end-diastolic pressure; LVEF Left ventricular ejection fraction; LVGLS Left ventricular global longitudinal strain; LVMI Left ventricular mass index; MI Myocardial infarct; MR Mitral regurgitation; PCI percutaneous coronary intervention; RCA Right coronary artery; TR Tricuspid regurgitation; 2D-STE two-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography