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Table 1 Baseline Clinical and Echocardiography Characteristics

From: Mid-term effect of balloon aortic valvuloplasty on mitral regurgitation in aortic stenosis

VariablesAll (n = 83)MR group (n = 40)Non-MR group (n = 43)P value
Clinical data
 Age, years86.2 ± 5.486.1 ± 6.586.4 ± 4.10.819
 Female, n (%)56 (67.5)25 (62.5)31 (72.1)0.482
 Body surface area, m21.4 ± 0.21.4 ± 0.21.4 ± 0.20.821
 Body mass index, kg/m221.0 ± 3.420.8 ± 3.621.2 ± 3.30.623
 NYHA III/IV, n (%)47 (60.2)28 (70.0)19 (44.2)0.094
 STS score, %9.6 ± 6.911.1 ± 7.58.2 ± 6.00.051
Comorbidities,n(%)
 Hypertension63 (75.9)29 (72.5)34 (79.1)0.609
 Diabetes mellitus24 (28.9)13 (32.5)11 (25.6)0.629
 Dyslipidemia31 (37.3)12 (30.0)19 (44.2)0.256
 History of smoking11 (13.3)5 (12.5)6 (14.0)1.000
 Coronary artery diseases13 (15.7)8 (20.0)5 (11.6)0.371
 Peripheral arterial diseases8 (9.6)5 (12.5)3 (7.0)0.473
 Cerebrovascular diseases11 (13.3)7 (17.5)4 (9.3)0.340
 Atrial fibrillation26 (31.3)17 (42.5)9 (20.9)0.057
Approach for BAV,n(%)
 Antegrade BAV65 (78.3)29 (72.5)36 (83.7)0.288
 Previous BAV12 (14.5)5 (12.5)7 (16.3)0.758
Laboratory data
 Hemoglobin, g/dL11.0 ± 1.710.5 ± 1.711.6 ± 1.60.004
 Albumin, g/dL3.4 ± 0.53.2 ± 0.53.5 ± 0.50.010
 Creatinine, mg/dL1.0 (0.8–1.2)1.1 (0.9–1.5)0.9 (0.7–1.0)0.002
 eGFR, mL/min/1.73 m245.1 ± 20.339.4 ± 19.050.4 ± 20.10.012
 BNP, pg/mL377 (167–758)702 (391–1042)216 (112–422)< 0.001
Medications,n(%)
 β-blocker52 (62.7)26 (65.0)26 (60.5)0.821
 ACEI/ARB57 (68.7)26 (65.0)31 (72.1)0.636
 Statin33 (39.8)12 (30.0)21 (48.8)0.116
 CCB34 (41.0)9 (22.5)25 (58.1)0.002
 Loop diuretics48 (57.8)25 (62.5)23 (53.5)0.506
 MRA22 (26.5)11 (27.5)11 (25.6)1.000
 Tolvaptan6 (7.2)5 (12.5)1 (2.3)0.101
 Anticoagulant15 (18.1)8 (20.0)7 (16.3)0.778
 Antiplatelet22 (26.5)11 (27.5)11 (25.6)1.000
Echocardiography parameters
Conventional parameters
  LVEDD, mm44.6 ± 6.746.2 ± 6.043.2 ± 7.10.039
  LVESV, mm30.7 ± 7.132.6 ± 6.828.9 ± 7.00.018
 LVEF, %55.2 ± 11.251.4 ± 13.058.6 ± 7.80.003
  LVSVI, mL41.6 ± 12.938.3 ± 11.744.7 ± 13.20.023
  IVST, mm10.8 ± 2.310.7 ± 2.110.9 ± 2.40.574
  PWT, mm10.5 ± 2.110.5 ± 2.010.5 ± 2.20.983
  E/A0.94 ± 0.581.1 ± 0.60.8 ± 0.60.089
  E/e’19.15 ± 8.2120.37 ± 8.5918.03 ± 7.780.203
  TR-PG, mmHg33.8 ± 14.240.5 ± 15.433.4 ± 12.20.023
  AR ≥ moderate, n (%)8 (9.6)5 (12.5)3 (7.0)0.473
AS parameters
 AVA, cm20.68 ± 0.160.66 ± 0.170.70 ± 0.150.301
 AVAi, cm2/m20.48 ± 0.110.47 ± 0.120.49 ± 0.100.401
 Peak V, m/s3.95 ± 0.853.81 ± 0.874.08 ± 0.810.147
  mPG, mmHg37.4 ± 16.335.6 ± 17.039.1 ± 15.60.330
MR parameters
  MR jet area, cm24.1 ± 3.67.0 ± 2.91.4 ± 1.2< 0.001
 %MR, %20.6 ± 16.534.0 ± 13.18.1 ± 6.5< 0.001
  Etiology of MR
   Type I1616
   Type II55
   Type IIIa1010
   Type IIIb99
  1. Data are mean ± SD for normally distributed data and median and interquartile range for non-normally distributed data, or n (%)
  2. NYHA, New York Heart Association, BAV, balloon aortic valvuloplasty, eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate, BNP brain natriuretic peptide, ACEI angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, ARB angiotensin II receptor blocker, CCB Calcium channel blocker, MRA mineral corticoid receptor antagonist, LVEDD left ventricular end-diastolic dimension, LVESV left ventricular end-systolic dimension, LVEF left ventricular ejection fraction, LV left ventricular, SVI stroke volume index, IVST interventricular septum thickness, PWT posterior wall thickness, E early diastolic wave velocity, A atrial wave velocity, e’ early diastolic mitral annular velocity, TR-PG peak trans-tricuspid pressure gradient, AS aortic stenosis, AVA aortic valve area, AVAi indexed aortic valve area, Peak V peak trans-aortic velocity, mPG mean trans-aortic pressure gradient, AR aortic regurgitation, MR mitral regurgitation, %MR MR jet area of left atrial area