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Table 2 Reference range of 3D global longitudinal strain from six large studies

From: A review of current trends in three-dimensional analysis of left ventricular myocardial strain

Author year
(Ref.#)
n Race Vendor Tracking Mean ± SD LLN (Overall)
(mean-1.96SD)
Mean ± SD
male
Mean ± SD
female
P (male vs. female) LLN (Male)
(mean-1.96SD)
LLN (Female)
(mean-1.96SD)
Kaku 2014 [59] 241 Japanese/American TomTec Subendocardial 19.6 ± 3.1% 13.5% 18.7 ± 2.8% 20.6 ± 3.1% < 0.001 13.2% 14.5%
Xia 2014 [60] 153 Chinese Toshiba Full myocardial 15.2 ± 0.8% 13.6% NA NA NA NA NA
Muraru 2014 [58] 265 European GE Full myocardial 18.7 ± 2.6% 13.5% 17.8 ± 2.4% 19.4 ± 2.6% < 0.001 13.0% 14.2%
Muraru 2014 [58] 265 European TomTec Subendocardial 20.4 ± 3.8% 12.8% 19.5 ± 3.8% 21.1 ± 3.6% < 0.001 11.9% 13.9%
Kleijn 2015 [61] 303 European/American Toshiba Full myocardial 15.9 ± 2.4% 11.2% 15.5 ± 2.4% 16.3 ± 2.3% 0.003 10.8% 11.8%
Bernard 2017 [62] 440 European TomTec Subendocardial 21.0 ± 2.6% 15.9% 20.4 ± 2.7% 21.4 ± 2.4% < 0.001 15.1% 16.7%
Kovacs 2019 [63] 178 European Toshiba Full myocardial 16.1 ± 2.5% 11.1% NA NA NA NA NA
  1. LLN lower limit of normal, NA not available, SD standard deviation
  2. Other abbreviations are the same in Table 1