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Table 3 Usefulness of 3D strain in patients with myocardial infarction

From: A review of current trends in three-dimensional analysis of left ventricular myocardial strain

Author Year (Ref.#) n Patients Vendor Feasibility Remarks
LV remodeling
 Abate 2012 [64] 153 Acute STEMI GE 96% (patients) 1) Regional 3D LS of 11.1% had a > 90% sensitivity and specificity for predicting improvement of LV regional function.
2) 3D GLS had an incremental value over clinical and standard echocardiography parameters for predicting improvement of LVEF (> 5%).
 Li 2012 [65] 61 Recent NSTEMI Toshiba 80% (patients) 1) Regional AS > 23% at baseline had a 75% sensitivity and a 76% specificity for predicting improvement of LV regional function.
2) 3D GAS ≤32% after PCI predicted LV adverse remodeling with 86% sensitivity and 68% specificity.
 Sugano 2017 [49] 71 Acute STEMI Toshiba 96% (patients) 1) 3D GCS < 23% had an 84% sensitivity and a 74% specificity for predicting LV adverse remodeling.
2) 3D GAS < 31% had an 84% sensitivity and a 58% specificity for predicting LV adverse remodeling.
 Xu 2017 [27] 110 Acute STEMI GE 91% (patients) 1) 2D GLS, 3D GLS, 3D GAS, and 3D GRS were independent predictors of LV adverse remodeling.
2) 3D GLS < 12.6% had a 92% sensitivity and a 60% specificity for predicting LV adverse remodeling.
3) 3D GAS < 24.2% had a 92% sensitivity and a 46% specificity for predicting LV adverse remodeling.
4) AUC of 3D GLS (0.82) was significantly higher than that of 2D GLS (0.72), 3D GAS (0.68) and 3D GRS (0.68) for predicting LV adverse remodeling.
Transmurality of MI
 Hayat 2012 [30] 25 OMI Toshiba 76% (patients) 96% (segments) 1) 2D LS and CS and all 3D regional strains were significantly different among segments derived from control subjects, those with non-transmural MI, and those with transmural MI.
 Thorstensen 2013 [33] 58 RMI GE 62% (patients)
71% (segments)
1) All 3D regional strains were significantly different among segments with no MI, those with non-transmural MI, and those with transmural MI.
2) All 3D regional strains predicted transmural MI (AUC: 0.73–0.87).
3) 2D GLS had a higher AUC (0.88) for the prediction of transmural MI than 3DGLS (0.73, p < 0.05).
 Zhu 2014 [66] 26 AMI Toshiba Not described 1. Regional 3D LS and 3D CS discriminated among segments with no MI, those with non-transmural MI, and those with transmural MI.
 Aly 2016 [67] 82 LV dysfunction Toshiba 88% (segments) 1. Regional 3D CS and 3D AS discriminated among segments with no MI, those with non-transmural MI, and those with transmural MI.
2. Regional 3D LS discriminated between segments with non-transmural MI and those with transmural MI.
3. Included 11 patients with non-ischemic LV dysfunction.
 Sugano 2017 [49] 71 Acute STEMI Toshiba 95% (segments) 1. Regional 2D CS, 3D CS, and 3D AS discriminated among segments with no MI, those with non-transmural MI, and those with transmural MI.
2. Regional 2D LS failed to differentiate between non-transmural MI and transmural MI. 3D LS failed to differentiate between no MI and non-transmural MI.
Infarct size
Author Year (Ref.#) n Patients Vendor Correlation of infarction size remarks
2D GLS 3D GLS 3D GCS 3D GRS 3DS 3D AS  
 Hayat 2012 [30] 25 OMI Toshiba NA r = 0.45 r = 0.47 r = 0.07 r = 0.10 r = 0.49  
 Thorstensen 2013 [33] 58 RMI GE r = 0.67 r = 0.42 r = 0.47 r = 0.48 r = 0.52 r = 0.50 2DGLS was more closely correlated with infarct size than 3DGLS.
 Zhu 2014 [66] 26 AMI Toshiba NA r = 0.86 r = 0.81 r = 0.71 NA NA  
 Aly 2016 [67] 71 ICM Toshiba NA r = 0.29 r = 0.32 r = 0.08 r = 0.29 r = 0.39  
  1. AMI acute myocardial infarction, AUC area under the curve, AS area strain, CS circumferential strain, LS longitudinal strain, GAS global area strain, GCS global circumferential strain, GLS global longitudinal strain, GRS global radial strain, MI myocardial infarction, NA not available, OMI old myocardial infraction, RMI recent myocardial infraction, STEMI ST elevation myocardial infarction