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Table 5 Summary of studies using 3D strain in patients with LV hypertrophy

From: A review of current trends in three-dimensional analysis of left ventricular myocardial strain

Author Year (Ref #) Type of disease
Purpose Remarks
Baccouche 2012 [77] CA (n = 12) / HCM (n = 12) To differentiate two pathologies. 1) Basal LS, CS and RS were significantly reduced in patients with CA compared with HCM.
2) Regional strain values were irreversibly correlated with LGE, and the best correlation was observed between RS and LGE (r = −0.82)
Aly 2014 [78] HCM mutation carriers (n = 23) / HCM (n = 28) / control (n = 29) To detect early changes in myocardial mechanics in HCM mutations. 1) There were no significant differences in 3D global/regional strains between HCM mutations and control subjects.
2) 3D global/regional LS and AS were significantly impaired in HCM compared with HCM mutations.
3) 3D GCS and 3DGRS were not different between HCM and HCM mutations.
Tadic 2015 [38] HT with normal LV geometry (n = 85) / concentric LV remodeling (n = 28) / eccentric nondilated LVH (42) / concentric LVH (n = 30) / dilated and concentric-dilated LVH (n = 12) To investigate LV mechanics in HT with different geometric patterns 1) 2D and 3D global strains decreased normal geometry, followed by concentric remodeling, eccentric nondilated LVH, concentric LVH, dilated LVH and concentric dilated LVH.
2) Reduced 2D and 3D strains were associated with concentric and dilated LVH patterns independent of demographic and clinical parameters.
Urbano-Moral 2015 [79] AL amyloidosis (n = 40) To detect cardiac involvement. 1) 3D GLS and GCS were significantly lower in patients with cardiac involvement than those without.
2) Prominent reduction of LS/CS was observed in the basal myocardium.
Voilliot 2015 [80] HCM (n = 40) / control (n = 53) To assess impact of hypertrophy on strains. Compared to control subjects,
1) 3D GLS, GAS, and GRS were significantly lower in HCM patients.
2) No significant differences in 3D GCS were noted.
3) 3D regional LS/AS was significantly depressed irrespective to the degree of hypertrophy.
4) 3D regional CS was higher in no or mildly hypertrophied segments.
Ternacle 2017 [52] Athlete with moderate LVH (n = 25) / Athlete without LVH (n = 25) / HCM (n = 25) / control (n = 25) To differentiate patients with HCM from athletes with moderate LVH. 1) 2D GLS and 3D GLS were significantly lower in HCM than athletes with moderate LVH.
2) 2D LV dyssynchrony index (SD of time to peak LS in 16 segment model) had a highest AUC for identifying HCM in the presence of moderate LVH.
3) 3D GCS was not different between the two groups.
Cho 2017 [46] Severe AS with normal LVEF (≥ 55%, n = 45) / control (n = 18) To evaluate early myocardial dysfunction 1) 2D GLS and 3D GLS were significantly impaired in severe AS patients with increased LV wall thickness compared with normal LV wall thickness.
2) 3D GCS, GAS, and GRS did not show any differences between the two groups.
Pradel 2019 [81] AL amyloidosis (n = 58) / control (n = 21) To detect LV dysfunction. 1) There were no significant differences in 3D LVEF and 3D global strains between Mayo Clinic Stage I AL amyloidosis and control subjects.
2) 3D LVEF and 3D global strains decreased according to the advanced Mayo Clinic stage.
  1. AS aortic stenosis, CA cardiac amyloidosis, HCM hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, HT hypertension, LGE late gadolinium enhancement, LVH left ventricular hypertrophy, SD standard deviation
  2. Other abbreviations are the same in Table 1