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Table 1 Demographic data of the study groups

From: Usefulness of tissue Doppler-derived atrial electromechanical delay for identifying patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation

Parameters Healthy controls
(n = 50)
Disease controls
(n = 33)
PAF patients
(n = 63)
P
Age (years) 60 ± 14 66 ± 15 62 ± 13 0.21
Female, n (%) 19 (38) 12 (36) 17 (27) 0.41
Body mass index 22.0 ± 3.3 23.1 ± 4.1 24.5 ± 3.6†§ < 0.001
CHADS2 score 0.18 ± 0.39 2.88 ± 1.05† 1.27 ± 1.10†‡ < 0.001
CHA2DS2-VASc score 0.82 ± 0.92 4.15 ± 1.48† 2.14 ± 1.63†‡ < 0.001
Congestive heart failure, n (%) 0 (0) 4 (12) 15 (24) < 0.001
Hypertension, n (%) 0 (0) 18 (55) 37 (59) < 0.001
Age ≥ 75 years, n (%) 8 (16) 7 (21) 11 (17) 0.83
Diabetes mellitus, n (%) 0 (0) 4 (12) 11 (17) < 0.001
Dyslipidemia, n (%) 0 (0) 16 (48) 14 (22) < 0.001
Stroke/TIA, n (%) 0 (0) 32 (97) 3 (5) < 0.001
Peripheral artery disease, n (%) 0 (0) 2 (6) 5 (8) 0.046
eGFR (mL/min/1.73m2) 74 ± 23 64 ± 23* 68 ± 17 0.060
Cardiac medications
 Digitalis, n (%) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0)
 Diuretics, n (%) 0 (0) 3 (9) 10 (16) 0.013
 Nitrates, n (%) 0 (0) 2 (6) 0 (0) 0.031
 ARBs/ACEIs, n (%) 0 (0) 12 (36) 23 (37) < 0.001
 Calcium channel blockers, n (%) 0 (0) 11 (33) 20 (32) < 0.001
 Beta-blockers, n (%) 0 (0) 3 (9) 21 (33) < 0.001
 Antiarrhythmic drugs, n (%) 0 (0) 0 (0) 20 (32) < 0.001
  1. Values are mean (±SD) or number of subjects (%)
  2. ACEI Indicates angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, ARB Angiotensin receptor blockers, eGFR Estimated glomerular filtration rate, and TIA transient ischemic attack
  3. *P < 0.05 and †P < 0.01 vs Healthy controls; §P < 0.05 and ‡P < 0.01 vs Disease controls