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Table 1 Demographic data of the study groups

From: Usefulness of tissue Doppler-derived atrial electromechanical delay for identifying patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation

ParametersHealthy controls
(n = 50)
Disease controls
(n = 33)
PAF patients
(n = 63)
P
Age (years)60 ± 1466 ± 1562 ± 130.21
Female, n (%)19 (38)12 (36)17 (27)0.41
Body mass index22.0 ± 3.323.1 ± 4.124.5 ± 3.6†§< 0.001
CHADS2 score0.18 ± 0.392.88 ± 1.05†1.27 ± 1.10†‡< 0.001
CHA2DS2-VASc score0.82 ± 0.924.15 ± 1.48†2.14 ± 1.63†‡< 0.001
Congestive heart failure, n (%)0 (0)4 (12)15 (24)< 0.001
Hypertension, n (%)0 (0)18 (55)37 (59)< 0.001
Age ≥ 75 years, n (%)8 (16)7 (21)11 (17)0.83
Diabetes mellitus, n (%)0 (0)4 (12)11 (17)< 0.001
Dyslipidemia, n (%)0 (0)16 (48)14 (22)< 0.001
Stroke/TIA, n (%)0 (0)32 (97)3 (5)< 0.001
Peripheral artery disease, n (%)0 (0)2 (6)5 (8)0.046
eGFR (mL/min/1.73m2)74 ± 2364 ± 23*68 ± 170.060
Cardiac medications
 Digitalis, n (%)0 (0)0 (0)0 (0)
 Diuretics, n (%)0 (0)3 (9)10 (16)0.013
 Nitrates, n (%)0 (0)2 (6)0 (0)0.031
 ARBs/ACEIs, n (%)0 (0)12 (36)23 (37)< 0.001
 Calcium channel blockers, n (%)0 (0)11 (33)20 (32)< 0.001
 Beta-blockers, n (%)0 (0)3 (9)21 (33)< 0.001
 Antiarrhythmic drugs, n (%)0 (0)0 (0)20 (32)< 0.001
  1. Values are mean (±SD) or number of subjects (%)
  2. ACEI Indicates angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, ARB Angiotensin receptor blockers, eGFR Estimated glomerular filtration rate, and TIA transient ischemic attack
  3. *P < 0.05 and †P < 0.01 vs Healthy controls; §P < 0.05 and ‡P < 0.01 vs Disease controls