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Table 3 Subgroup analyses of GLS between DMD and control groups

From: Usefulness of speckle-tracking echocardiography for early detection in children with Duchenne muscular dystrophy: a meta-analysis and trial sequential analysis

  Number of studies Test of difference Test of Heterogeneity
WMD (95% CI) P value I2 (%) P value
Country
 USA/Europe/Egypt 4 5.01 (3.73–6.29) < 0.001 40.5 0.169
 China/Korea 4 3.28 (1.63–4.93) < 0.001 62.4 0.047
Quality of study
 Medium quality 5 4.89 (3.78–6.00) < 0.001 28.3 0.233
 High quality 3 3.04 (1.04–5.05) 0.003 71.5 0.030
Method
 Two-dimensional STE 4 4.90 (3.62–6.19) < 0.001 40.1 0.171
 Three-dimensional STE 4 3.41 (1.64–5.17) < 0.001 67.8 0.025
Machine/software
 GE Vivid E9 with EchoPAC 7 4.07 (2.83–5.31) < 0.001 66.1 0.007
 Philips iE33 with Qlab 1 5.20 (2.51–7.89) < 0.001
  1. CI confidence interval, GLS global longitudinal strain, STE speckle tracking echocardiography, WMD weighted mean difference