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Table 1 Clinical and echocardiographic characteristics of the study groups

From: Left atrial spontaneous echo contrast occurring in patients with low CHADS2 or CHA2DS2-VASc scores

Parameters CHADS2 group
(n = 349)
CHA2DS2-VASc group
(n = 221)
P
Age (years) 65 ± 10 62 ± 11 0.012
Female, n (%) 93 (27) 39 (18) 0.005
Paroxysmal AF, n (%) 249 (71) 169 (76) 0.18
CHADS2 score 0.64 ± 0.48 0.47 ± 0.50 < 0.001
0 124 (36) 118 (53)  
1 225 (64) 103 (47) < 0.001
CHA2DS2-VASc score 1.27 ± 0.86 0.71 ± 0.45 < 0.001
0 63 (18) 63 (29)  
1 158 (45) 158 (71)  
2 99 (28) 0 (0)  
3 28 (8) 0 (0)  
4 1 (0) 0 (0) < 0.001
HAS-BLED score 0.44 ± 0.66 0.35 ± 0.59 0.11
Congestive heart failure, n (%) 56 (16) 28 (13) 0.26
Hypertension, n (%) 131 (38) 66 (30) 0.059
Age 65–75, n (%) 135 (39) 47 (21) < 0.001
Age ≥ 75 years, n (%) 20 (6) 0 (0) < 0.001
Diabetes mellitus, n (%) 15 (4) 6 (3) 0.32
Dyslipidemia, n (%) 64 (18) 41 (19) 0.95
Stroke/TIA, n (%) 0 (0) 0 (0)
Vascular disease, n (%) 9 (3) 0 (0) 0.003
eGFR (mL/min/1.73m2) 68 ± 16 69 ± 15 0.55
eGFR < 60 mL/min/1.73m2, n (%) 88 (25) 53 (24) 0.51
BNP (pg/mL) 93 ± 257 80 ± 201 0.53
BNP ≥200 pg/mL, n (%) 30 (9) 17 (8) 0.70
Anticoagulation, n (%) 338 (97) 215 (97)  
Warfarin, n (%) 96 (28) 67 (30)  
DOACs, n (%) 242 (69) 148 (67) 0.93
Echocardiography    
LA diameter (mm) 42 ± 7 41 ± 7 0.22
LA diameter ≥ 50 mm, n (%) 46 (13) 22 (10) 0.24
LV end-diastolic dimension (mm) 48 ± 6 48 ± 6 0.81
LV end-systolic dimension (mm) 31 ± 7 31 ± 6 0.99
LVEF (%) 62 ± 8 62 ± 7 0.64
LVEF< 50%, n (%) 18 (5) 10 (5) 0.73
Thickness of IVS (mm) 9 ± 2 9 ± 2 0.89
Thickness of LV posterior wall (mm) 9 ± 1 9 ± 1 0.85
LV mass (g) 159 ± 46 160 ± 48 0.89
LV mass index (g/m2) 93 ± 24 92 ± 25 0.80
LV hypertrophy, n (%) 86 (25) 47 (21) 0.35
More-than-mild MR, n (%) 17 (5) 9 (4) 0.88
LAA velocity (cm/s) 58 ± 28 61 ± 28 0.26
LAA velocity < 20 cm/s, n (%) 18 (5) 9 (4) 0.55
LASEC, n (%) 77 (22) 41 (19) 0.31
LA thrombus, n (%) 1 (0) 0 (0) 0.32
  1. Values are mean (±SD) or number of subjects (%). BNP indicates B-type natriuretic peptide, DOACs indicates Direct oral anticoagulants, eGFR Estimated glomerular filtration rate, IVS Interventricular septum, LAA Left atrial appendage, LVEF Left ventricular ejection fraction, MR Mitral regurgitation, and TIA Transient ischemic attack