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Table 2 Patient characteristics

From: Mechanistic validation of the 2016 American Society of Echocardiography/European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging Guidelines for the assessment of diastolic dysfunction in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction

  Diastolic dysfunction grade 1 Diastolic dysfunction grade 2 or 3 p-value
(n = 30) (n = 20)
Age, years 62 ± 15 68 ± 14 0.15
Females, n (%) 11 (37) 8 (40) 0.81
Hypertension, n (%) 19 (63) 19 (95) 0.01
Diabetes Mellitus, n (%) 12 (40) 14 (70) 0.04
Ischemic Cardiomyopathy, n (%) 20 (67) 11 (55) 0.41
Chronic Kidney Diseasea, n (%) 5 (17) 5 (25) 0.47
Heart rate, beats/min 73 [63, 75] 74 [62, 85] 0.33
LVEF, % 40 [35, 45] 35 [29, 41] 0.04
LAVI, ml/m2 25.2 ± 5.9 39.3 ± 5.9 < 0.001
LVMI, g/m2 114 ± 30 137 ± 40 0.03
LVEDD, mm 53 [46, 58] 57 [52, 60] 0.06
E, cm/s 65 [54, 74] 106 [95, 128] < 0.001
A, cm/s 77 [63, 89] 63 [43, 3] 0.07
E/A ratio 0.88 [0.66, 1.05] 2.00 [1.50, 2.80] < 0.001
DT, ms 206 ± 49 161 ± 50 0.003
e’ lateral, cm/s 7.3 ± 2.5 6.4 ± 2.0 0.16
E/e’ lateral ratio 9.8 [7.0, 11.8] 18.1 [14.0, 19.5] < 0.001
  1. Data are presented as mean ± SD or median [interquartile range]. LVEF left ventricular ejection fraction, LAVI left atrial volume index, LVMI left ventricular mass index, LVEDD left ventricular end-diastolic diameter, DT deceleration time. adenotes at least moderate chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage (3A or higher) as defined by the National Kidney Foundation