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Table 2 Clinical and echocardiographic parameters of tricuspid regurgitation subgroups stratified by etiology (primary vs secondary) and severity

From: Three-dimensional transthoracic echocardiographic evaluation of tricuspid regurgitation severity using proximal isovelocity surface area: comparison with volumetric method

Variable Primary TR Secondary TR P
Non-severe (n = 24) Severe
(n = 20)
Non-severe
(n = 28)
Severe
(n = 27)
Sex,Female(%) 15(62.5) 10(50.0) 18(64.3) 18(66.7) 0.677
Age(y) 54.5 ± 11.6 56.3 ± 13.1 66.4 ± 7.5* 61.9 ± 9.6 0.010
Weight(kg) 58.2 ± 8.3 61.2 ± 12.6 59.8 ± 11.1 63.0 ± 21.2 0.729
Height(cm) 162.3 ± 6.7 164.2 ± 8.9 162.1 ± 9.1 156.0 ± 25.2 0.319
BSA(m2) 1.6 ± 0.1 1.6 ± 0.2 1.6 ± 0.2 1.6 ± 0.2 0.702
Atrial Fibrillation(%) 12(50.0) 7(35.0) 9(32.1) 12(44.4) 0.544
TR jet location, centric(%) 6(25.0) 6(30.0) 15(53.6) 18(66.7) 0.417
Malcoaptation or flail leaflet(%) 10(41.7) 15(75.0) 3(10.7) 10(37.0) < 0.001
VCW,≥0.7 cm(%) 4(16.7) 19(95.0) 3(10.7) 23(85.2) < 0.001
PISA radius,
> 0.9 cm(%)
0(0) 4(20.0) 0(0) 1(3.7) 0.007
TR VTI(m) 0.73 ± 0.20 0.61 ± 0.21 0.89 ± 0.21+ 0.67 ± 0.20 < 0.001
TR Vmax(m/s) 2.40 ± 0.56 2.17 ± 0.65 2.69 ± 0.62+ 2.23 ± 0.60 0.013
RVOT VTI(m) 0.12 ± 0.02 0.12 ± 0.03 0.15 ± 0.05 0.14 ± 0.05 0.350
S(RVOT)(cm2) 3.16 ± 0.60 3.93 ± 1.61 3.48 ± 0.87 3.28 ± 0.87 0.237
SV(RVOT)(ml) 38.8 ± 9.3 46.7 ± 16.0 50.3 ± 22.0 42.4 ± 10.9 0.207
RVEDV(ml) 107.9 ± 21.8+ 173.4 ± 46.6 129.2 ± 34.9*,+ 162.8 ± 43.5 < 0.001
RVESV(ml) 44.9 ± 13.5 64.9 ± 26.9 57.5 ± 28.6 65.6 ± 20.7 0.088
SV(RV)(ml) 63.0 ± 12.8+ 107.5 ± 29.6 70.4 ± 21.1+ 97.4 ± 36.9 < 0.001
Rvol(ml) 24.2 ± 12.5+ 60.9 ± 23.1 20.8 ± 10.8+ 53.8 ± 31.4 < 0.001
Hepatic vein systolic reversal(%) 2(8.3) 14(70.0) 2(7.1) 15(55.6) < 0.001
Dilated right ventricle with preserved function(%) 8(33.3) 15(75.0%) 7(25.0) 23(85.2) < 0.001
2D PISA EROA(cm2) 0.12 ± 0.02+ 0.85 ± 0.38 0.12 ± 0.02+ 0.57 ± 0.10 0.008
3D PISA EROA(cm2) 0.26 ± 0.04+ 1.10 ± 0.46 0.23 ± 0.03*,+ 0.92 ± 0.17 < 0.001
3D Rvol EROA(cm2) 0.39 ± 0.04+ 1.27 ± 0.28 0.23 ± 0.03+ 0.83 ± 0.13 0.015
  1. TR tricuspid regurgitation, VCW vena contrata width, PISA proximal isovelocity surface area, VTI velocity-time integral, Vmax maximum velocity, RVOT right ventricular outflow tract, S area, SV stroke volume, RVEDV maximum of right ventricular volume, RVESV minimum of right ventricular volume, RV right ventricle, Rvol regurgitant volume, 2D two-dimensional, 3D three-dimensional, EROA effective regurgitant orifice area
  2. *P < 0.05 vs. Primary TR. +P < 0.05 vs. Severe TR