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Table 1 Basic information, clinical features, diagnostic information and mortality of 310 IE patients

From: Preoperative false-negative transthoracic echocardiographic results in native valve infective endocarditis patients: a retrospective study from 2001 to 2018

Variable Total
N = 300
Surgery
N = 182
None surgery
N = 118
P
Previous cardiovascular conditions or cardiac diseases 126 (42.0) 85 (46.7) 41 (34.5) 0.003
 Degenerative calcific valvular disease 27 (9.0) 18 (9.9) 9 (7.6) 0.606
 Rheumatic heart disease 59 (19.7) 41 (22.5) 18 (15.1) 0.122
 Congenital heart disease 58 (19.3) 42 (23.1) 16 (13.4) 0.053
Clinical features
 Fever 251 (83.7) 141 (77.5) 110 (92.4) 0.000
 Heart murmurs 253 (84.3) 162 (89.0) 91 (76.5) 0.006
 Ischemic stroke 65 (21.7) 31 (17.0) 34 (28.6) 0.016
 Hemorrhagic stroke 26 (8.7) 10 (5.5) 16 (13.4) 0.015
 Heart insufficiency (NYHA II ~ IV) 175 (58.3) 124 (68.1) 51 (42.9) 0.000
bAcute congestive heart failure 64 (21.3) 41 (22.5) 23 (19.3) 0.531
Positive blood culture 172 (57.3) 93 (51.1) 79 (66.4) 0.007
Staphylococcus aureus 43 (14.3) 14 (7.7) 29 (24.4) 0.000
Modified Duke’s criteria
 Definite IE 166 (55.3) 81 (44.5) 85 (71.4) 0.000
 Suspected IE 113 (37.7) 80 (44.0) 33 (27.7) 0.005
 Excluded a21 (11.5)
Pathological criteria
 Pathological confirmed a173 (95.1)
 Pathological excluded a9 (4.9)
In-hospital death 32 (10.7) 8 (4.4) 24 (20.2) 0.000
  1. aThese data were only available to surgery group
  2. bPatients developed acute pulmonary edema
  3. NYHA New York Heart Association