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Table 4 Factors associated with the false negative results of echocardiographic results

From: Preoperative false-negative transthoracic echocardiographic results in native valve infective endocarditis patients: a retrospective study from 2001 to 2018

Variable Category Number Inconsistence(%) Univariate analysis Multivariate analysis
P OR 95%CI P OR 95%CI
lower upper lower upper
Previous cardiovascular conditions or cardiac diseases
 Congenital heart disease yes 42 11 (26.2) 0.008 3.194 1.322 7.715 0.038 2.907 1.062 7.956
no 140 14 (10.0)         
 Degenerative cardiac valve disease yes 18 3 (16.7) 0.984 1.291 0.645 4.825     
no 164 22 (13.4)         
 Rheumatic heart disease yes 41 9 (22.0) 0.083 2.197 0.890 5.428 0.080    
no 141 16 (11.3)         
Clinical features
 Fever yes 141 15 (10.6) 0.024 0.369 0.151 0.900 0.028 0.309 0.108 0.882
no 41 10 (24.4)         
 Heart murmurs yes 162 18 (11.1) 0.010 0.232 0.082 0.658 0.003 0.165 0.050 0.546
no 20 7 (35.0)         
 Embolism yes 40 8 (20.0) 0.193 1.838 0.728 4.639     
no 142 17 (12.0)         
 Positive blood culture results yes 94 10 (10.6) 0.21 0.579 0.245 1.368     
no 88 15 (17.0)         
Size of vegetations < 1 cm 32 12 (37.5) 0.000 6.330 2.532 15.873 0.000 8.197 2.841 23.256
> 1 cm 150 13 (8.7)