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Table 1 Baseline clinical, analytical and demographic characteristics, global and stratified by left atrial emptying fraction

From: Left atrial functional assessment and mortality in patients with severe aortic stenosis with sinus rhythm

Variable All patients (n = 408) LAEF < 37% (n = 116) LAEF 37–53% (n = 139) LAEF ≥ 54% (n = 153) P Value
Male gender, n (%) 221 (53.5) 51 (44.0) 74 (53.2) 94 (61.4) 0.017
Age, years 74.4 ± 10.3 78.7 ± 9.8 75.2 ± 8.4 70.3 ± 1079 < 0.001
Body surface area, m2 1.78 ± 0.18 1.73 ± 0.17 1.77 ± 0.19 1.83 ± 0.17 < 0.001
Hypertension, n (%) 308 (76.6) 83 (74.1) 100 (73.0) 121 (81.8) 0.167
AF during follow-up, n (%) 62 (15.3) 35 (30.7) 17 (12.3) 7 (4.7) < 0.001
Coronary artery disease, n (%) 136 (45.8) 35 (59.3) 45 (41.7) 55 (42.6) 0.061
Dyslipidemia, n (%) 268 (66.8) 58 (51.8) 95 (69.9) 112 (75.7) < 0.001
Diabetes mellitus, n (%) 126 (31.3) 38 (33.9) 44 (32.1) 43 (29.1) 0.690
Chronic kidney disease, n (%) 168 (41.5) 63 (54.3) 65 (46.8) 39 (26.4) < 0.001
Stage 5 CKD, n (%) 15 (3.8) 5 (4.3) 5 (3.6) 5 (3.5) 0.929
Terminal neoplasia, n (%) 6 (1.5) 2 (1.8) 3 (2.2) 1 (0.7) 0.583
Hepatic cirrhosis, n (%) 7 (1.8) 0 (0.0) 5 (3.6) 2 (1.4) 0.087
Previous malignancy, n (%) 63 (15.7) 19 (17.0) 26 (19.0) 18 (12.2) 0.270
Chronic lung disease, n (%) 36 (9.0) 14 (12.5) 13 (9.5) 9 (6.1) 0.199
Previous stroke/TIA, n (%) 41 (10.2) 14 (12.5) 9 (6.6) 18 (12.2) 0.202
Katz index ≤4*, n (%) 64 (15.9) 32 (28.3) 17 (12.4) 13 (8.8) < 0.001
Dementia, n (%) 22 (5.5) 10 (8.8) 6 (4.4) 5 (3.4) 0.129
GFR, mL/min/1.73 m12 66 ± 28 57 ± 26 65 ± 28 76 ± 27 < 0.001
Systolic blood pressure, mmHg 131 ± 19 129 ± 22 128 ± 16 137 ± 19 0.001
Diastolic blood pressure, mmHg 69 ± 14 68 ± 16 68 ± 14 72 ± 13 0.083
Heart rate, beats per minute 75 ± 15 78 ± 17 75 ± 14 74 ± 14 0.149
Sodium, mmol/L 139 ± 3.0 138 ± 3.9 139 ± 2.7 140 ± 2.3 0.001
Creatinine, mg/dL 1.25 ± 1.07 1.36 ± 1.01 1.30 ± 1.2 1.11 ± 0.96 0.123
Hemoglobin, g/dL 12.7 ± 3.2 11.9 ± 1.7 12.9 ± 4.9 13.1 ± 1.7 0.006
Aspartate aminotransferase, IU/L 26 ± 16 27 ± 11 28 ± 21 24.1 ± 13 0.106
Alanine aminotransferase, IU/L 25 ± 22 27 ± 24 23 ± 17 25 ± 21 0.276
Alkaline phosphatase, IU/L 83 ± 50 93 ± 41 79 ± 28 80 ± 68 0.077
Gamma-glutamyltransferase, IU/L 44 ± 62 55 ± 77 38 ± 47 41 ± 60 0.107
Total bilirubin, mg/dL 0.9 ± 3.3 0.7 ± 0.4 0.7 ± 0.4 1.3 ± 5.3 0.344
International normalized ratio 1.2 ± 0.4 1.3 ± 0.5 1.2 ± 0.5 1.1 ± 0.1 0.001
Antiplatelet, n (%) 177 (49.6) 57 (54.8) 57 (46.3) 63 (48.5) 0.424
Statin, n (%) 238 (66.7) 64 (61.5) 84 (68.3) 90 (69.2) 0.414
ACEi or ARB, n (%) 228 (63.7) 69 (65.7) 70 (56.9) 89 (68.5) 0.142
Calcium-channel blocker, n (%) 75 (21.0) 18 (17.3) 23 (18.7) 34 (26.2) 0.189
MRA, n (%) 29 (8.1) 11 (10.6) 13 (10.6) 5 (3.8) 0.082
Diuretic, n (%) 244 (68.2) 80 (76.2) 87 (70.7) 77 (59.2) 0.016
Oral antidiabetic, n (%) 87 (24.3) 22 (21.2) 30 (24.2) 35 (26.9) 0.593
Beta-blocker, n (%) 154 (43.1) 51 (49.0) 50 (40.7) 53 (40.8) 0.353
Insulin, n (%) 49 (13.7) 22 (21.2) 13 (10.5) 14 (10.8) 0.031
Surgical AVR only, n (%)Ŧ 154 (65.8) 18 (54.5) 64 (71.1) 39 (64.9) 0.220
AVR and aorta replacement, n (%)Ŧ 15 (6.4) 3 (9.1) 4 (4.4) 8 (7.2) 0.579
AVR and CABG, n (%)Ŧ 45 (19.2) 6 (18.2) 15 (16.7) 24 (21.6) 0.666
Percutaneous AVR, n (%)Ŧ 18 (7.7) 5 (15.2) 7 (7.8) 6 (5.4) 0.182
AVR bypass time, minutes 71.1 ± 25.7 66.6 ± 16.3 68.9 ± 30.5 74.3 ± 23.3 0.235
AVR aortic clamping time, minutes 42.2 ± 11.4 40.5 ± 9.9 41.9 ± 11.6 42.9 ± 11.8 0.618
AVR procedural complications, n (%)Ŧ 10 (4.4%) 0 (0.0) 5 (5.7) 5 (4.6) 0.421
  1. ACEi denotes angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor, AF atrial fibrillation, ARB angiotensin receptor blocker, AVR aortic valve replacement, CABG coronary artery bypass grafting, CKD chronic kidney disease, GFR glomerular filtration rate (using Modification of Diet in Renal Disease formula), IU international units, MRA mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist, TIA transient ischemic attack.
  2. * Katz index of independence in activities of daily living, ranging from 6 (patient independent) to 0 (patient very dependent)
  3. Ŧ Percentage relative to patients that were submitted to AVR.