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Table 2 Echocardiographic parameters, global and stratified by left atrial emptying fraction

From: Left atrial functional assessment and mortality in patients with severe aortic stenosis with sinus rhythm

Variable All patients (n = 408) LAEF < 37% (n = 116) LAEF 37–53% (n = 139) LAEF ≥ 54% (n = 153) P Value
LAPEF, % 24.6 ± 10.3 15.7 ± 7.5 25.0 ± 7.9 30.8 ± 9.2 < 0.001
LAPEVi, mL/m2 11.2 ± 5.2 9.0 ± 5.2 12.0 ± 4.9 12.2 ± 4.9 < 0.001
LAAEF, % 28.9 ± 16.8 10.2 ± 6.8 26.9 ± 9.3 44.3 ± 11.8 < 0.001
LAAEVi, mL/m2 9.4 ± 5.0 5 ± 3.5 9.7 ± 4.1 12.1 ± 4.7 < 0.001
LVEF, % 57.5 ± 11.2 50.8 ± 14.8 59.0 ± 8.6 61.5 ± 6.6 < 0.001
LVEF ≥50%, n (%) 344 (83.7) 71 (61.7) 126 (90.6) 145 (95.4) < 0.001
Aortic valve area, cm2 0.75 ± 0.33 0.63 ± 0.20 0.75 ± 0.19 0.84 ± 0.47 < 0.001
Aortic valve indexed to BSA, cm2/m2 0.44 ± 0.37 0.38 ± 0.11 0.42 ± 0.10 0.51 ± 0.57 0.018
Transaortic mean pressure gradient, mmHg 49.1 ± 14.2 47.9 ± 16.8 49.7 ± 13.7 49.4 ± 12.4 0.562
Peak aortic jet velocity, m/s 4.45 ± 0.59 4.36 ± 0.76 4.47 ± 0.54 4.49 ± 0.48 0.153
Very severe aortic stenosis*, n (%) 97 (23.7) 28 (24.6) 33 (23.9) 34 (22.2) 0.894
LVOT VTI / AV VTI ratio 0.23 ± 0.07 0.21 ± 0.06 0.22 ± 0.06 0.25 ± 0.07 < 0.001
Enlarged right ventricle, n (%) 55 (13.3) 30 (25.9) 11 (7.9) 14 (9.2) < 0.001
TAPSE, mm 21.1 ± 3.9 19.6 ± 4.0 21.5 ± 3.7 22.0 ± 3.8 < 0.001
TAPSE < 16 mm, n (%) 23 (5.6) 16 (13.9) 2 (1.4) 4 (2.6) < 0.001
RV/RA gradient, mmHg 30.9 ± 11.3 36.3 ± 13.3 26.7 ± 7.1 28.3 ± 9.2 < 0.001
SPAP, mmHg 35.2 ± 13.2 42.0 ± 15.9 30.1 ± 7.6 32.3 ± 10.8 < 0.001
Left ventricular hypertrophy, n (%) 222 (55.2) 74 (64.9) 79 (58.1) 67 (45.6) 0.006
Severe left ventricular hypertrophy, n (%) 9 (2.2) 6 (5.3) 2 (1.5) 1 (0.7) < 0.001
Mitral E velocity, m/s 0.83 ± 0.25 0.94 ± 0.25 0.81 ± 0.25 0.79 ± 0.22 < 0.001
Mitral A velocity, m/s 0.96 ± 0.33 0.83 ± 0.43 1.03 ± 3.02 0.99 ± 0.3 < 0.001
Septal e’ velocity, cm/s 4.81 ± 1.70 0.38 ± 0.12 0.47 ± 0.17 0.55 ± 0.16 < 0.001
Septal a’ velocity, cm/s 7.10 ± 2.23 0.51 ± 0.18 0.71 ± 0.18 0.84 ± 0.19 < 0.001
E/A ratio 1.04 ± 0.80 1.59 ± 1.30 0.86 ± 0.41 0.84 ± 0.37 < 0.001
E/e’ ratio 19.22 ± 7.82 26.38 ± 9.33 18.43 ± 5.66 15.17 ± 4.42 < 0.001
Diastolic L wave, n (%) 20 (5.9) 14 (16.5) 3 (2.6) 2 (1.5) < 0.001
  1. AV denotes aortic valve, LAEF left atrial emptying fraction, LAAEF left atrial active emptying fraction, LAAEVi indexed left atrial active emptying volume, LAPEF left atrial passive emptying fraction, LAPEVi indexed left atrial passive emptying volume, LVEF left ventricular ejection fraction, LVOT left ventricular outflow tract, RV/RA right ventricle/right atrium, SPAP systolic pulmonary artery pressure, TAPSE tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion, VTI velocity time integral.
  2. * Defined as transaortic mean pressure gradient ≥60 mmHg or peak aortic jet velocity ≥ 5 m/s