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Table 1 Clinical and echocardiographic characteristics of the study population

From: Comparison of left atrial and left atrial appendage mechanics in the risk stratification of stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation

  Overall (N = 208) Stroke/TIA (N = 31) Control (N = 177) P value
Clinical characteristics
 Gender,male 133 (63.9) 20 (64.5) 113 (63.8) 0.94
 Age,years 63.58 ± 10.37 68.32 ± 7.57 62.75 ± 10.59 < 0.01
 Body mass index,kg/m2 24.37 ± 3.20 24.72 ± 3.07 24.31 ± 3.22 0.52
 Heart failure 33 (15.9) 10 (32.3) 23 (13.0) < 0.01
 Coronary artery disease 37 (17.8) 7 (22.6) 30 (16.9) 0.45
 Hypertension 111 (53.4) 19 (61.3) 92 (52.0) 0.34
 Diabetes 45 (21.6) 8 (25.8) 37 (20.9) 0.54
 Hyperlipoproteinemia 58 (27.9) 5 (16.1) 53 (29.9) 0.11
 Persistent AF 120 (57.7) 20 (64.5) 100 (56.5) 0.40
 Anticoagulation 145 (69.7) 23 (74.2) 122 (68.9) 0.56
 CHA2DS2-VASc score before stroke 1.82 ± 1.26 2.29 ± 1.16 1.73 ± 1.26 0.02
Conventional echocardiographic parameters
 iLVESV,mL/m2 24.18 ± 9.40 27.82 ± 14.40 23.56 ± 8.17 0.13
 iLVEDV,mL/m2 66.84 ± 14.55 70.56 ± 17.95 66.21 ± 13.85 0.13
 LVEF,% 64.26 ± 8.24 61.58 ± 8.73 64.72 ± 8.09 0.05
 iLAAPd,mm/ m2 22.77 ± 3.82 23.48 ± 3.72 22.64 ± 3.83 0.26
 iLAVmin,mL/m2 27.88 ± 15.48 34.86 ± 18.81 26.63 ± 14.53 < 0.01
 iLAVmax,,mL/m2 41.67 ± 17.08 47.79 ± 22.96 40.57 ± 15.63 0.03
 LAEF, % 35.2 ± 16.00 28.56 ± 13.69 36.39 ± 16.13 0.01
 LAAEV,m/s 0.53 ± 0.24 0.45 ± 0.25 0.54 ± 0.23 0.09
 LAAFV,m/s 0.53 ± 0.20 0.47 ± 0.23 0.54 ± 0.20 0.10
 LAA dense SEC/thrombus 36 (18.5) 11 (40.7) 25 (14.9) < 0.01
 ilAAVmin,mL/m2 1.89 ± 1.58 2.06 ± 1.53 1.86 ± 1.59 0.53
 iLAAVmax,mL/m2 4.24 ± 2.41 4.12 ± 2.58 4.26 ± 2.38 0.77
 LAAEF,% 57.30 ± 19.83 51.86 ± 16.81 58.19 ± 20.19 0.13
Strain echocardiographic parameters
 LA GLS,% 18.08 ± 9.64 13.09 ± 7.01 19.99 ± 9.79 < 0.01
 LA MD,% 8.91 ± 3.76 11.56 ± 4.38 8.43 ± 3.44 < 0.01
 LAA GLS,% 12.15 ± 5.82 9.01 ± 3.12 12.66 ± 6.00 < 0.01
 LAA MD,% 11.53 ± 4.78 15.15 ± 5.46 10.94 ± 4.40 < 0.01
  1. Data are expressed as mean ± SD or N (%)
  2. AF atrial fibrillation, EDV end-diastolic volume, ESV end-systolic volume, GLS global longitudinal strain, i indexed to body surface area, LA left atrium, LAA left atrial appendage, LAA EF LAA emptying fraction, LAAEV LAA emptying velocity, LAAFV LAA filling velocity, LAAPd LA anteroposterior diameter, LAEF LA emptying fraction, LV left ventricle, LVEF left ventricular ejection fraction, MD mechanical dispersion, SEC spontaneous echo contrast, TIA transient ischaemic attack, Vmax maximal volume, Vmin minimal volume