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Table 1 Baseline characteristics in patients with and without cardiac amyloidosis

From: Cardiac amyloidosis screening using a relative apical sparing pattern in patients with left ventricular hypertrophy

Variables Available data Overall
(n = 295)
CA
(n = 54)
Non-CA
(n = 241)
p value
(CA vs Non-CA)
Age (years) 295 67 (55–75) 75 (68–79) 65 (55–72) < 0.01
Male sex, n (%) 295 191 (65) 47 (87) 144 (60) < 0.01
Body weight (kg) 295 61.9 (53.0–72.0) 57.5 (53.0–65.8) 62.0 (53.0–74.0) 0.048
Body mass index (kg/m2) 295 23.6 (21.1–26.7) 22.1 (20.6–24.5) 24.0 (21.4–27.1) < 0.01
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 294 129 (112–146) 111 (100–125) 133 (117–150) < 0.01
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 294 71 (62–80) 63 (56–72) 72 (64–82) < 0.01
Heart rate (/min) 295 69 (60–79) 72 (66–78) 68 (59–79) 0.08
NYHA functional class at discharge (I/II/III/IV), n (%) 295 149/59/49/38 (50/20/17/13) 13/18/16/7 (24/33/30/13) 136/41/33/31 (56/17/14/13) < 0.01
Comorbidities
 Hypertension, n (%) 295 141 (48) 16 (30) 125 (52) < 0.01
 Diabetes, n (%) 295 57 (19) 4 (7) 53 (22) 0.01
 Dyslipidemia, n (%) 295 85 (29) 12 (22) 73 (30) 0.32
 Atrial fibrillation, n (%) 295 74 (25) 14 (26) 23 (10) < 0.01
 Device (N/PPM/ICD/CRT), n (%) 295 263/16/11/5 (89/5/4/2) 43/7/1/3 (80/13/2/6) 220/9/10/2 (91/4/4/1) < 0.01
Serum markers
 B-type natriuretic peptide (pg/mL) 272 123.9 (49.8–352.3) 263.7 (135.2–860.3) 109.5 (44.9–271.1) < 0.01
 Troponin positive*, n (%) 79 51 (65) 19 (86) 32 (56) 0.01
 Hemoglobin (g/L) 290 13.3 (11.9–14.8) 13.0 (11.5–14.3) 13.5 (11.9–15.0) 0.07
 eGFR (mL/min/1.73 m2) 292 61.1 (46.1–73.6) 52.3 (40.5–67.9) 62.0 (48.8–73.9) 0.01
 Sodium (mmol/L) 292 140 (138–142) 139 (136–141) 140 (139–142) < 0.01
 Serum albumin (mg/L) 287 4.0 (3.5–4.3) 3.7 (3.1–4.0) 4.1 (3.7–4.3) < 0.01
Electrocardiographic variables
 SV1 + RV5 voltage (mm) 295 3.1 (1.9–4.1) 1.8 (1.3–2.4) 3.3 (2.2–4.4) < 0.01
 PQ duration (ms) 255 174 (157–202) 195 (160–239) 172 (156–197) 0.02
 QRS duration (ms) 295 102 (92–116) 108 (95–138) 102 (92–114) 0.01
 Heart-rate-corrected QT (ms) 295 438 (418–459) 448 (423–467) 437 (416–453) < 0.01
 Right bundle branch block, n (%) 295 27 (9) 8 (15) 19 (8) 0.12
 Left bundle branch block, n (%) 295 18 (6) 7 (13) 11 (5) 0.03
 Pseudo-infarct pattern, n (%) 295 48 (16) 16 (30) 32 (13) < 0.01
 Low voltage, n (%) 295 11 (3) 7 (13) 4 (2) < 0.01
Conventional echocardiographic variables
 Interventricular septal thickness (mm) 295 13.0 (11.0–15.0) 14.0 (13.0–15.6) 12.0 (11.0–15.0) < 0.01
 LV posterior wall thickness (mm) 295 11.0 (10.0–13.0) 13.0 (11.0–15.0) 11.0 (10.0–12.0) < 0.01
 LV mean wall thickness (mm) 295 11.9 (10.5–13.5) 13.5 (11.6–15.4) 11.5 (10.5–13.0) < 0.01
 LV mass index (g/m2) 295 137.5 (112.5–169.3) 140.2 (114.0–179.1) 136.5 (112.0–168.6) 0.35
 LV end-diastolic diameter (mm) 295 48.0 (43.0–54.0) 45.0 (40.0–49.0) 49.0 (44.0–54.0) < 0.01
 LV end-systolic diameter (mm) 295 31.0 (25.6–37.0) 31.0 (27.0–35.0) 31.0 (25.0–39.0) 0.59
 LV end-diastolic volume (mL) 295 75.0 (59.1–101.0) 72.0 (59.2–88.8) 76.0 (59.1–105.7) 0.19
 LV end-systolic volume (mL) 295 30.0 (21.0–46.5) 32.3 (22.3–40.3) 29.0 (21.0–48.5) 0.84
 LV ejection fraction (%) 295 59.3 (48.8–66.7) 55.1 (49.9–62.9) 61.0 (48.5–66.9) 0.16
 E velocity deceleration time (ms) 295 200 (161–245) 169 (145–200) 208 (168–256) < 0.01
 e’-wave velocity (cm/s) 289 4.3 (3.4–5.6) 4.0 (2.8–4.5) 4.6 (3.6–5.8) < 0.01
 Septal E/e’ 289 15.2 (11.5–20.5) 19.6 (16.2–26.6) 14.0 (11.1–18.3) < 0.01
 LA volume index (mL/m2) 292 42.7 (30.0–54.6) 48.7 (40.2–60.9) 40.7 (29.1–53.4) < 0.01
 Moderate to severe mitral regurgitation, n (%) 293 40 (14) 11 (20) 29 (12) 0.13
 Moderate to severe aortic regurgitation, n (%) 293 19 (6) 5 (9) 14 (6) 0.36
 Pericardial effusion, n (%) 286 22 (8) 6 (11) 16 (7) 0.26
 Granular sparkling, n (%) 285 38 (13) 10 (19) 28 (12) 0.18
 Interatrial septal wall thickness (mm) 282 6.7 (5.5–7.9) 6.6 (4.9–8.7) 6.8 (5.5–7.8) 0.55
 Right ventricular wall thickness (mm) 285 3.8 (3.2–4.4) 3.9 (3.4–4.4) 3.7 (3.2–4.3) 0.20
 Anterior mitral valve leaflet thickness (mm) 285 2.9 (2.4–3.5) 3.2 (2.7–3.5) 2.9 (2.4–3.5) 0.12
Strain imaging variables
 LV global longitudinal strain (%) 287 −11.8 (−15.1–-8.6) −10.0 (−12.5–-7.5) −12.4 (−15.3–-8.7) < 0.01
 Ejection fraction strain ratio 287 4.8 (3.9–6.1) 5.4 (4.4–6.8) 4.6 (3.8–6.0) 0.01
 LA longitudinal strain (reservoir phase) (%) 260 14.9 (9.1–22.2) 7.7 (6.1–12.0) 17.5 (12.3–23.8) < 0.01
 LA longitudinal strain (booster phase) (%) 226 8.7 (5.0–11.8) 3.5 (1.9–5.2) 9.6 (6.4–12.8) < 0.01
 qRASP 287 0.69 (0.50–0.84) 1.02 (0.84–1.19) 0.63 (0.47–0.77) < 0.01
 qRASP > 1.00, n (%) 287 41 (14) 29 (55) 12 (5) < 0.01
 qRASP > 0.90, n (%) 287 55 (19) 36 (68) 19 (8) < 0.01
 qRASP > 0.87, n (%) 287 62 (22) 37 (70) 25 (11) < 0.01
 sRASP, n (%) 287 42 (15) 26 (49) 15 (6) < 0.01
  1. Data are expressed as the median (interquartile range), or number (percentage)
  2. *Troponin I (n = 68) ≥26.2 pg/mL or Troponin T (n = 11) ≥0.014 ng/mL
  3. ACEi indicates angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor; AF, atrial fibrillation; ARB, angiotensin receptor blocker; CA, cardiac amyloidosis; CRT, cardiac resynchronization therapy; ICD, implantable cardioverter-defibrillator; LA, left atrial; LV, left ventricular; NYHA, New York Heart Association; PPM, permanent pacemaker; qRASP, quantitatively assessed relative apical sparing pattern of longitudinal strain; sRASP, semi-quantitatively assessed relative apical sparing pattern of longitudinal strain