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Table 2 Echocardiography

From: Moderately trained male football players, compared to sedentary male adults, exhibit anatomical but not functional cardiac remodelling, a cross-sectional study

  Athletes Controls Difference
Parameter    p-value
N 23 16  
Heart rate (beats * min-1) 60 (41–79) 72 (57–100) < 0.001
Septumd (mm) 10 (7–12) 9 (7–11) 0.044
LVEDd (mm) 56 (46–68) 53 (47–61) 0.055
LVPWTd (mm) 9.0 (7.0–11.0) 8.0 (6.0–10.0) < 0.001
LVM (g) 225 (138–268) 168.5 (103–231) < 0.001
LVEDd-A4Ch (mm) 57 (47–67) 53 (45–60) 0.005
LA-area (cm2) 20.0 (15.4–24.8) 17.5 (12.5–24.1) 0.005
RA-area (cm2) 20.0 (12.1–30.9) 16.0 (10.5–21.9) < 0.001
3D-LAvolume (mL) 73 (49–106) 51 (35–88) < 0.001
RVIT1-A4CH (mm) 38 (21–45) 34 (29–45) 0.053
TAPSE (mm) 27 (17–33) 26 (22–28) 0.009
RVFAC (%) 49 (40–58) 47 (37–55) 0.086
E-velocity (m * s−1) 0.8 (0.6–1.2) 0.8 (0.5–1.2) 0.933
A-velocity (m * s-1) 0.4 (0.3–0.5) 0.5 (0.4–1.1) < 0.001
EA-ratio 2.1 (1.5–3.0) 1.4 (0.9–2.3) < 0.001
e-prim-mean (m * s-1) 0.17 (0.11–0.24) 0.17 (0.10–0.19) 0.746
E-eprim-ratio 5.1 (0.0–6.3) 5.0 (0.0–7.6) 0.682
2D-LVEDV (mL) 176 (128–239) 150 (112–178) < 0.001
2D-LVESV (mL) 78 (53–114) 63 (41–77) < 0.001
2D-LVEF (%) 56 (49–64) 57 (53–67) 0.329
3D-LVEDV (mL) 200 (145–245) 154 (117–195) < 0.001
3D-LVESV (mL) 80 (60–128) 67 (40–93) 0.003
3D-LVSV (mL) 117 (79–148) 91 (68–107) < 0.001
3D-LVEF (%) 59 (47–67) 58 (50–66) 1.000
2D-Echo-tissue-volume ratio 1 (1–1) 1 (0–1) 0.434
2D-LVGLS (%) −19 (−24--15) − 19 (− 22--14) 0.362
3D-Sphericity 0.45 (0.33–0.73) 0.33 (0.24–0.48) < 0.001
  1. Values are median and interquartile range