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Table 3 Correct diagnoses by PHU and PE with TTE as a reference

From: Cardiac assessment accuracy by students using palm-held ultrasound compared to physical examination by skilled cardiologists: a pilot study with a single medical student

  TTE PHU PE % Absolute difference (95% CI) P value
Ejection fraction (%) > 50% 42 38/42 (90.5%) 35/42 (83.3%) 3%) 1%-13%) 0.508
Ejection fraction (%) < 50% 35 15/35 (42.9%) 6/35 (17.1%) 9%25%-3%)) 0.035
Mitral regurgitation absent 69 64/69 (92.8%) 67/69 (97.1%) | % -3| (1%-10%) 0.453
Mitral regurgitation present 8 4/8 (50%) 4/8 (50%) 0% 1.00
Mitral stenosis absent 76 73/76 (96.1%) 76/76 (100%) | % -3| (1%-10%) +
Mitral stenosis present 1 1/1 (100%) 0/1 (0%) 100% +  +
Aortic regurgitation absent 76 70/76 (92.1%) 76/76 (100%) -6%|| (2%-14%) +
Aortic regurgitation present 1 0/1 (0%) 1/1 (100%) -100%|| +  +
Aortic stenosis absent 72 68/72 (94.4%) 70/72 (97.2%) | % -3.2| (1%-10.2%) 0.625
Aortic stenosis present 5 0/5 (0%) 2/5 (40%) |-40%| (11.8%-76.9%) +  +
Pericardial effusion absent 71 70/71 (90.9%) 71/71 (100%) -1.4%|| (0.2%-4.0%) +
Pericardial effusion present 6 0/6 (0%) 0/6 (0%) 0% +
  1. Absent means none or mild valvular dysfunction, while present refers to moderate to severe. The sensitivity is defined as the presence of a heart condition, while specificity is mentioned as the absence of one
  2. PE physical examination, Per. Eff. pericardial effusion
  3. + Cannot be calculated