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Table 4 PPV and NPV of the PHU and physical examination compared with echocardiographic findings

From: Cardiac assessment accuracy by students using palm-held ultrasound compared to physical examination by skilled cardiologists: a pilot study with a single medical student

  PHU PE
  PPV NPV PPV NPV
EF (%) 79% 65% 78% 64%
Mitral regurgitation 44% 94% 67% 94%
Mitral stenosis 25% 100% - 99%
Aortic regurgitation 0% 99% - 99%
Aortic stenosis 0% 93% 50% 96%
Pericardial effusion 0% 92% - 7.7%