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Table 1 Left ventricular parameters during vena cava occlusion, first and last beat

From: Left ventricular twist is load-dependent as shown in a large animal model with controlled cardiac load

CONTROL   First beat Last beat  
Ves (mL) 42.0 ± 7.9 21.3 ± 6.4 #
Ved (mL) 100.3 ± 12.7 69.2 ± 11.0 #
Pes (mm Hg) 118.6 ± 4.5 100.7 ± 6.6 #
Ped (mm Hg) 12.0 ± 4.3 1.9 ± 3.7 #
dPdtMax (mm Hg/s) 2797 ± 429 3035 ± 526 #
EF (%) 61.9 ± 6.2 70.5 ± 7.0 #
SW (mm Hg mL) 7097 ± 1385 4544 ± 891 #
Tau (ms) 34.30 ± 2.77 34.10 ± 3.61  
PHT (ms) 20.85 ± 2.12 19.06 ± 2.56  
dPdtMin (mm Hg/s) −2776 ± 186 −2347 ± 158  
ADRENALINE
Ves (mL) 32.0 ± 13.10 11.0 ± 7.4 #
Ved (mL) 96.0 ± 32.4 62.9 ± 20.3 #
Pes (mm Hg) 123.1 ± 18.0 98.0 ± 12.3 #
Ped (mm Hg) 14.0 ± 6.9 3.0 ± 4.6 #
dPdtMax (mm Hg/s) 5389 ± 1519 5416 ± 1538  
EF (%) 72.6 ± 7.2 85.0 ± 9.7 #
SW (mm Hg mL) 8725 ± 2833 5822 ± 2415 #
Tau (ms) 24.12 ± 2.87 31.11 ± 2.80 #
PHT (ms) 14.92 ± 2.24 16.54 ± 1.66  
dPdtMin (mm Hg/s) −3454 ± 775 −2314 ± 392  
BETA-BLOCKADE
Ves (mL) 52.2 ± 9.7 23.5 ± 10.9 #
Ved (mL) 105.1 ± 20.0 62.0 ± 14.3 #
Pes (mm Hg) 115.5 ± 12.7 91.7 ± 9.3 #
Ped (mm Hg) 12.9 ± 5.6 −0.6 ± 4.3 #
dPdtMax (mm Hg/s) 1925 ± 527 1909 ± 473  
EF (%) 55.4 ± 6.5 69.5 ± 16.7 #
SW (mm Hg mL) 5907 ± 1675 3375 ± 826 #
Tau (ms) 47.14 ± 20.61 36.84 ± 7.06 #
PHT (ms) 26.40 ± 6.62 20.76 ± 5.06 #
dPdtMin (mm Hg/s) −2244 ± 414 −1992 ± 341  
  1. Ves = end-systolic volume; Ved = end-diastolic volume; Pes = end-systolic pressure; Ped = end-diastolic pressure; dPdt max = maximal rate of pressure increase; EF = ejection fraction; SW = stroke work; Tau = isovolumic relaxation time constant; PHT = pressure half time during diastole: dPdt min = maximal rate of pressure decrease. Data are presented as mean ± 95% confidence intervals, n = 7. # = p < 0.05 using Wilcoxons Signed Rank test vs. first beat.
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