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Table 1 Baseline characteristics in overall patients and according to final diagnosis

From: Rapid evaluation by lung-cardiac-inferior vena cava (LCI) integrated ultrasound for differentiating heart failure from pulmonary disease as the cause of acute dyspnea in the emergency setting

  All patients (n = 90) AHFS group (n = 53) Pulmonary group (n = 37) P value
Mean age, yrs 78.1 ± 9.9 77.7 ± 10.3 78.6 ± 9.2 0.662
Female sex 45 (50.0) 29 (54.7) 16 (43.2) 0.284
Medical history
 Prior hospitalization for heart failure 42 (46.7) 27 (50.9) 15 (40.5) 0.330
 Hypertension 51 (56.7) 38 (71.7) 13 (35.1) <0.001
 Dyslipidemia 20 (22.2) 16 (30.2) 4 (10.8) 0.029
 Diabetes 11 (12.2) 7 (13.2) 4 (10.8) 0.733
 Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease 24 (26.7) 13 (24.5) 11 (29.7) 0.583
 History of atrial fibrillation 22 (24.4) 12 (22.6) 10 (27.0) 0.634
Medications prior to admission
 Loop diuretic 47 (52.2) 31 (58.5) 16 (43.2) 0.154
 Spironolactone or Eplerenone 31 (34.4) 22 (41.5) 9 (24.3) 0.091
 ACE inhibitor or ARB 45 (50.0) 33 (62.3) 12 (32.4) 0.005
 Beta-blocker 27 (30.0) 17 (32.1) 10 (27.0) 0.607
 Calcium channel blocker 13 (14.4) 9 (16.9) 4 (10.8) 0.413
 Digoxin 8 (8.9) 6 (11.3) 2 (5.4) 0.332
Laboratory data
 Brain natriuretic peptide, pg/ml 461.1 ± 451.9 622.0 ± 505.3 230.7 ± 208.2 <0.001
 Blood urea nitrogen, mg/dl 25.6 ± 14.3 26.0 ± 15.2 24.8 ± 13.0 0.701
 Serum creatinine, mg/dl 1.07 ± 0.51 1.12 ± 0.58 0.99 ± 0.36 0.203
 C-reactive protein, mg/dl 3.64 ± 5.73 1.96 ± 3.17 6.05 ± 7.52 <0.001
Symptoms on admission
 Orthopnea 42 (46.7) 25 (47.2) 17 (45.9) 0.901
 Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea 40 (44.4) 28 (52.8) 12 (32.4) 0.055
 Peripheral edema 48 (53.3) 37 (69.8) 11 (29.7) <0.001
Signs on admission
 Rales 56 (62.2) 37 (69.8) 19 (51.3) 0.075
 Wheezing 38 (42.2) 20 (37.7) 18 (48.6) 0.302
 Jugular venous distension 25 (27.8) 19 (35.8) 6 (16.2) 0.041
 S3 19 (21.1) 15 (28.3) 4 (10.5) 0.045
Ultrasound findings
 Pleural effusion 18 (20.0) 14 (26.4) 4 (10.5) 0.069
 Lung consolidation 10 (11.1) 1 (1.9) 9 (24.3) <0.001
 Reduced EF (LVEF <40%) 22 (24.4) 16 (17.8) 6 (16.2) 0.129
 MR ≥ moderate 41 (45.6) 41 (77.3) 0 ( 0.0) <0.001
 TR ≥ moderate 38 (42.2) 34 (64.5) 4 (10.5) <0.001
 IVC collapsibility <50% 51 (56.7) 44 (83.0) 7 (18.9) <0.001
  1. Values are shown as the no. (%), mean ± SD. AHFS = acute heart failure syndromes; ACE = angiotensin-converting enzyme; ARB = angiotensin receptor blocker. LV = left ventricular; EF = ejection fraction; MR = mitral reguragitation; TR = tricuspid regurgitation; IVC = inferior vena cava.