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Table 1 Patient characteristics and echocardiographic parameters in 260 persistent AF patients

From: Motion of left atrial appendage as a determinant of thrombus formation in patients with a low CHADS2 score receiving warfarin for persistent nonvalvular atrial fibrillation

  AF without thrombus AF with thrombus p-value
  (n = 217) (n = 43)  
Clinical parameters    
 Age (year) 65.9 ± 10.5 68.9 ± 9.7 0.08
 Male, n (%) 165 (76) 35 (81) 0.41
 Smoking, n (%) 51 (23) 10 (23) 0.98
 Diabetes Mellitus, n (%) 45 (21) 13 (30) 0.17
 Hypertension, n (%) 128 (59) 31 (72) 0.10
 Dyslipidemia, n (%) 59 (27) 7 (16) 0.13
 Prior stroke, n (%) 25 (12) 11 (26) 0.015
 AF duration (year) 5.9 ± 5.8 7.1 ± 5.9 0.22
 PT-INR 1.89 ± 0.47 1.91 ± 0.44 0.81
 PT-INR met guideline 132 (61) 31 (72) 0.16
 CHADS2 score 1 (1 – 2) 2 (1 – 3) 0.003
Echocardiographic parameters
 LVEF (%) 57.7 ± 9.2 55.7 ± 9.0 0.19
 LAD (mm) 46.7 ± 6.5 49.0 ± 6.1 0.032
 Maximum LAA volume (ml) 10.6 ± 4.7 17.4 ± 9.9 <0.001
 Minimum LAA volume (ml) 7.4 ± 3.8 14.2 ± 8.4 <0.001
 SEC score (0-4 grade) 1 (1 – 1) 1 (1 – 2) <0.001
 LAAPV (cm/sec) 29.6 ± 11.4 21.2 ± 6.6 <0.001
 LAA peak longitudinal strain 8.2 ± 5.0 2.7 ± 1.9 <0.001
 LAAEF (%) 31.3 ± 10.5 18.5 ± 4.2 <0.001
  1. Numerical data are expressed as the mean ± one standard deviation. Non-parametric data are expressed as the median (interquartile range). AF: atrial fibrillation. PT-INR: prothrombin-international normalized ratio. LAD: left atrial dimension. LVEF: left ventricular ejection fraction. SEC: spontaneous echo contrast. LAAPV: left atrial appendage peak flow velocity. LAAEF: left atrial appendage emptying fraction.