Skip to main content

Advertisement

Table 3 Acoustic shadowing

From: Visualization of multimodal polymer-shelled contrast agents using ultrasound contrast sequences: an experimental study in a tissue mimicking flow phantom

CA PI PI PM PPI CPS
(f = 5/10 MHZ) (f = 1.5/3.1 MHz) (f = 1.5/3.2 MHz) (f = 1.3/2.6 MHz) (f = 4 MHz)
  106 105 104 106 105 104 106 105 104 106 105 104 106 105 104
Plain PVA p < 0.001 NS NS p < 0.001 NS NS p < 0.001 NS NS p < 0.001 p < 0.01 NS p < 0.001 NS NS
  (0.4) (0.4) (0.4) (0.4) (0.4) (0.4) (0.4) (0.4) (0.4) (1.2) (1.2) (1.2) (1.0) (0.8) (0.8)
PVA Type A p < 0.001 NS NS p < 0.001 p < 0.001 NS p < 0.001 p < 0.001 NS p < 0.001 p < 0.001 p < 0.001 p < 0.001 NS NS
(0.4) (0.4) (0.4) (0.4) (0.4) (0.4) (0.4) (0.4) (0.6) (1.2) (1.2) (1.2) (0.8) (0.6) (0.6)
PVA Type B p < 0.001 NS NS p < 0.001 NS NS P = 0.01 NS NS p < 0.001 p < 0.001 p < 0.05 p < 0.001 NS NS
(0.4) (0.4) (0.4) (0.4) (0.6) (0.4) (0.6) (0.4) (0.6) (1.2) (1.2) (1.2) (1.0) (1.0) (1.0)
  1. Observations of acoustic shadowing, at the maximal contrast to tissue ratio (dB) value and its associated mechanical index (brackets) for the different types of the polymer-shelled shelled CA at three concentrations; 106 MBs/ml, 105 MBs/ml, 104 MBs/ml. A significant shadowing effect is marked with its p-value and a non significant shadowing effect with NS (not significant).
  2. PI = Pulse Inversion, PM = Power modulation, PPI = power pulse inversion, CPS = Contrast pulse sequence, PVA = Polyvinyl alcohol, NS = not significant.