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Table 1 Ultrasound parameters and microbubbles used for delivering genes and drugs.

From: The use of microbubbles to target drug delivery

Author Transfection Transducer frequency Delivery mode Delivery site Output Peak negative pressure Microbubble Efficacy
Porter TR, et al1 Antisense c-myc protooncogene 1 MHz PW Coronary arteries 0.6 W/cm2   PESDA +
Zhou Z, et al2 VEGF 1 MHz CW Myocardium 1.2 W/cm2   Sonazoid +
Taniyama Y, et al3 Luciferase    Carotid artery 2.5 W/cm2   Optison +
Teupe C, et al4 β-galactosidase/ eNOS 2.2–4.4 MHz CW Coronary arteries    Gas-filled albumin microbubble +
Porter TR, et al5 Antisense c-myc protooncogene 2 MHz CW Carotid artery   13 kPa PESDA -
   20 kHz CW Carotid artery   46 kPa PESDA +
Mukherjee D, et al6 VEGF 1.0 MHz CW Myocardium 0.2 W/cm2 0.164 MPa PESDA 9.37 ± 1.98*
   1.0 MHz CW Myocardium 0.4 W/cm2 0.194 MPa PESDA 18.58 ± 2.46*
   1.0 MHz CW Myocardium 0.6 W/cm2 0.328 MPa PESDA 23.12 ± 3.95*
   1.0 MHz CW Myocardium 0.8 W/cm2 0.394 MPa PESDA 25.46 ± 2.78*
   1.0 MHz CW Myocardium 1.0 W/cm2 0.419 MPa PESDA 26.48 ± 3.98*
Shohet RV, et al7 β-galactosidase 1.3 MHz ECG-triggered Myocardium    Perfluorocarbon-filled microbubbles +
Bao S, et al8 Luciferase 2.25 MHz   Cultured cells   0.2–0.4 MPa Albunex +
  1. * Efficacy is demonstrated as mean ± SD endothelial vascular growth factor uptake by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. CW = continuous wave; ECG = electrocardiogram; eNOS = endothelial nitric oxide synthase; PESDA = perfluorocarbon-exposed sonicated dextrose and albumin; PW = pulsed wave; VEGF = vascular endothelial growth factor.