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Table 3 Echocardiograhic data between three sessions on land and during warm water immersion (n = 12)

From: Benefit of warm water immersion on biventricular function in patients with chronic heart failure

  A B C
LV TVTI s (cm) land 1.3. ± 0.4 1.3 ± 0.4 1.3 ± 0.4
LV TVTI s (cm) WWI 2.0 ± 0.3** 2.0 ± 0.3** 1.9 ± 0.4**
LVEDV (mL) land 122 ± 40 114 ± 40 110 ± 41
LVEDV (mL) WWI 151 ± 59* 145 ± 56* 142 ± 41**
RV TVTI s (cm) land 1.8. ± 0.5 1.8 ± 0.5 1.9 ± 0.5
RV TVTI s (cm) WWI 2.8 ± 0.6** 2.9 ± 0.7** 2.8 ± 0.8**
PCWP (mmHg) land 9.5 ± 3.6 9.7 ± 4.0 10.1 ± 4.2
PCWP (mmHg) WWI 12.3 ± 6.0** 11.7 ± 4.7* 12.2 ± 4.4*
SVR (RU) land 30 ± 7 30 ± 5 30 ± 7
SVR (RU) WWI 21 ± 5** 23 ± 5** 21 ± 5**
  1. Data are mean ± SD
  2. *p < 0.05; **p < 0.01, land vs. warm water immersion.
  3. There were no significant differences between the sessions.
  4. A: Baseline, B: After 8 weeks of control period without changes in daily lifestyle,
  5. C: After 8 weeks of hydrotherapy twice weekly.
  6. Bpm, beat per minute; LV, left ventricular; LVEDV, left ventricular enddiastolic volume; PCWP, pulmonary capillary wedge pressure; RU, resistant unit; RV, right ventricle; SV, stroke volume; SVR, systemic vascular resistance; TVTI, tissue velocity time integral; WWI; warm water immersion.
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