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Table 2 Summary of reported cases of LVF post pericardiocentesis: Electrocardiographic, biochemical, echocardiographic and outcome parameters

From: A case report of ventricular dysfunction post pericardiocentesis: stress cardiomyopathy or pericardial decompression syndrome?

Report LV function pre tap LV function post tap RV function post tap Regional wall motion abnormality Bio marker ECG Coronary artery imaging Inotrope, IABP or Intubation Death LV recovery
VanDyke (1983) [5] Normal Normal (EF 67%) - Nil Normal Normal - Intubation No Normal LV
Shenoy (1984) [22] - Mild LV impairment Normal Septal hypokinesis Normal T wave abnormality and ST elevation V5-6 - - No Normalised few days later
Glasser (1987) [23] - Pulmonary capillary wedge pressure normal Normal (RVP increased) - - - - Intubation No Clinical improvement
Downey (1991) [24] - Inferred to be normal Normal - - Normal - No No Normal LV
Wolfe (1993) [19] Normal, EF > 50% EF 30% - Severe global hypokinesis of LV - - - - No Normalised after 7 days
Wolfe (1993) [19] Normal, EF > 50% EF 25% - Antero-apical akinesis and apical dyskinesis - - - - - Normalised after 2 weeks
Hamaya (1993) [25] Normal - - Not provided Normal ST elevation - Inotropes and intubation No -
Braverman (1994) [26] EF 20% EF 20% EF <15% Not provided - - - - - EF 45% in 9 days then normalised after a few weeks
Anguera (1996) [27] - Mildly impaired. Normal capillary wedge pressure Severely dilated and severely impaired contractility, EF <15% Paradoxical septal motion - - Normal coronary arteries Inotropes No Complete recovery of biventricular fn after 10 days
Sunday (1999) [8] EF 65% EF 30% Severely impaired contractility Global hypokinesis - - - Intubation Yes No
Chamoun (2003) [6] Normal, EF > 50% EF 20% - Regional wall motion abnormality - SR Normal coronary arteries Inotropes and IABP No Normalised 2 weeks later
Chamoun (2003) [6] Normal, EF > 50% EF 20% - Akinesis of mid anterior wall and septum /dilatation of LV - SR - No No Normalised 2 weeks later
Geffroy (2004) [7] Normal, EF > 50% EF >50% EF <15% Akinetic and dilated RV Elevated Old RBBB Normal coronary arteries Inotropes and intubation Yes -
Ligero (2006) [20] Normal, EF 75% EF 25% Severe impairment Akinesis of anterior, septum and apex Normal CK Normal Normal coronary arteries Inotropes No Normalised 10 days later
Bernal (2007) [28] Normal, EF 60-65% EF 30% - Akinesis of mid anterior wall, anteroseptal akinesis with apical sparing Elevated Sinus tachycardia CMR: no myocardial infarction Inotropes and intubation No Normalised 1 weeks later
Dosios (2007) [9] Normal LV fn EF 25% Moderately dilated, impaired Global hypokinesis Elevated - - Inotropes and intubation Yes -
Sevimli (2008) [17] Normal, EF > 50% EF 20% - Akinesis in the left ventricular apex, and severe hypokinesis in the septum - Precordial TWI, normalised later Normal coronary arteries No No Normalised 10 days later
Khalili (2008) [27] EF 35% <10% EF <15% Global hypokinesis - Widening of QRS - Inotropes and IABP- Yes -
Flores (2009) [28] EF 60% 13% - Global hypokinesis Normal Normal Old RCA Branch lesion Inotropes No Normalised 10 days later
Karamichalis (2009) [31] - - -   - Bradycardia - Inotropes and tracheostomy Yes -
Lee (2010) [18] - EF 20 -30% - Typical features of Takotsubo’s (diagnosed as such) - Precordial TWI, normalised later Normal coronary arteries No Yes No
Lim (2011) [32] EF normal, 73% EF 46% - Segmental wall motion abnormality - - - Inotropes and IABP Yes -
Abdelsalam (2012) [10] Vigorous EF 10-15% Dilated and impaired fn Takotsubo pattern of akinesia - ST elevation - Inotropes and IABP Yes -
Weijers (2013) [11] Normal Poor LV fn - General hypokinesia and anterior and septal akinesia Normal TWI and Q waves in anterolateral lead - - No Complete recovery of LV fn several months later
Liang (2014) [1] Normal, EF 69% EF 39% (on MRI) Impaired Severe mid and apical hypokinesis of both Ventricles (diagnosis : Takotsubo’s cardiomyopathy) - - Normal coronary arteries - No LV normalised 1 week later
Versaci (2015) [16] Normal, EF >50% EF 28% - LV ballooning, typical feature of Takotsubo’s cardiomyopathy Elevated QS wave in V1–V4 with negative T wave and ST elevation in V5–V6 Normal coronary arteries No No Normalised after 10 days
  1. LV Left ventricle, RV Right ventricle, fn function, EF Ejection fraction, IABP Intra-aortic balloon pump, RVP right ventricular pressure