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Table 1 Main clinical characteristics of the 201 study patients, and comparison between the two study sub-groups classified according to the evidence of myocardial ischemia at the echo exercise test

From: Echocardiographic markers of inducible myocardial ischemia at baseline evaluation preparatory to exercise stress echocardiography

Variables NO YES p Total study population (201 patients)
Myocardial ischemia (168 patients, 84 %) Myocardial ischemia (33 patients, 16 %)
Age (years) 65 ± 9 66 ± 9 0.50 65 ± 10
Female gender (%) 35 20 0.07 32
Obesity (%) 28 15 0.12 26
Waist circumference (cm) 94 ± 11 93 ± 11 0.16 94 ± 11
Hypertension (%) 46 42 0.72 45
Dyslipidemia (%) 49 45 0.68 48
Active smoker, % 12 12 0.97 12
Diabetes (%) 46 52 0.55 47
Diabetes + hypertension (%) 35 30 0.64 34
Systolic Blood Pressure (mmHg) 140 ± 18 147 ± 23 0.01 141 ± 19
Diastolic Blood Pressure (mmHg) 80 ± 9 81 ± 11 0.35 80 ± 9
Heart Rate (beats/minute) 70 ± 11 67 ± 12 0.11 69 ± 11
Glycemia (mg/dl) 134 ± 59 131 ± 53 0.89 133 ± 58
HbA1c (%) a 7.6 ± 1.4 7.5 ± 1.5 0.88 7.6 ± 1.5
Hemoglobin (gr/dl) 14.3 ± 1.5 14.5 ± 1.5 0.73 14.3 ± 1.5
GFR (ml/min/1.73 m2) 81 ± 8 74 ± 10 0.78 80 ± 24
LDL Cholesterol (mg/dl) 110 [92–132] 95 [81–130] 0.75 106 [83–129]
Triglycerides (mg/dl) 162 [118–218] 145 [89–200] 0.10 157 [99–192]
Macroalbuminuria (>300 mg/g) (%) 22 11 0.47 20
Pharmacological treatment     
Betablockers (%) 21 39 0.02 24
ACEi / ARB (%) 46 42 0.67 46
Diuretics (%) 17 18 0.90 17
Calcium antagonists (%) 17 3 0.04 15
Anti-hypertension medications b 1.1 ± 1.1 1.1 ± 1.2 0.95 1.1 ± 1.1
Anti-platelets agents (%) 38 58 0.04 41
Statins (%) 40 45 0.60 41
Metformin (%) a 40 39 0.94 40
Other oral anti-diabetic drugs (%) 20 20 0.97 20
Insulin (%) 16 12 0.70 16
  1. ACEi Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, ARB Angiotensin T1 receptor blockers, GFR Glomerular Filtration Rate, HbA1c glycated haemoglobin
  2. a Measured in patients with diabetes mellitus only; b number per patient