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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of participants

From: Left ventricular diastolic function is strongly correlated with active emptying of the left atrium: a novel analysis using three-dimensional echocardiography

  Normal diastolic function (E/e’mean < 8) n = 30 With evidence of diastolic LV dysfunction (E/e’mean ≥ 8 & LAVmax ≥ 34 mL/m2) n = 26 p-value
Anthropometry
 Women [%] 4 (13 %) 10 (38 %) 0.07
 Age [yrs] 52.3 ± 15.1 64.8 ± 9.3 0.001
 Weight [kg] 76.5 ± 9.7 78.3 ± 12.8 0.63
 Height [m] 1.76 ± 0.07 1.71 ± 0.08 0.02
 Body mass index [kg/m2] 24.7 ± 2.6 26.7 ± 3.7 0.01
 Fat Free Mass [kg] 63.0 ± 9.5 57.2 ± 6.8 0.09
 Body surface area [m2] 1.92 ± 0.14 1.90 ± 0.18 0.55
Cardiovascular Risk Factors
 Hypercholesterolemia (total cholesterol ≥6.21 mmol/L) 5 (17 %) 7 (27 %) 0.61
 RRsys/RRdia 128 ± 16/83 ± 10 144 ± 22/85 ± 9 0.01/0.25
 Hypertension (RRsys > 140 mmHg or RRdia > 90 mmHg) 9 (30 %) 16 (62 %) 0.07
Echocardiography
 Heart rate [bpm] 59 ± 11 68 ± 10 0.001
 3D-EFLV [%] 59.7 ± 5.2 60.6 ± 12.0 0.14
 LV mass [g/m2] 86.6 ± 16.0 96.9 ± 30.4 0.35
 E [cm/s] 68.4 ± 18.1 79.6 ± 16.4 0.02
 Left ventricle internal diameter, diastole [mm] 47 ± 6 39 ± 11 0.002
 Posterior wall thickness, diastole [mm] 11 ± 2 13 ± 3 <0.001
 Septum wall thickness, diastole [mm] 11 ± 2 14 ± 3 <0.001
 A [cm/s] 60.6 ± 14.5 79.2 ± 20.0 0.001
 E/A ratio 1.20 ± 0.44 1.05 ± 0.35 0.10
 Dct [ms] 218 ± 8 262 ± 6 0.004
 e’lat [cm/s] 14.0 ± 3.6 8.9 ± 2.7 <0.001
 E/e’lat 5.01 ± 1.12 9.9 ± 4.6 <0.001
 e’med [cm/s] 9.3 ± 2.8 6.4 ± 1.5 0.001
 E/e’med 7.42 ± 1.57 13.01 ± 3.46 <0.001
 E/e’ mean 5.55 ± 1.33 11.30 ± 2.92 <0.001
 E/e’ mean [range] 2.9–7.9 8.0–20.0 <0.001
  1. Mean ± SD or median (IQR)
  2. (RR sys /RR dia systolic and diastolic blood pressure, E early diastolic filling peak velocity, A peak velocity during atrial contraction, Dct Deceleration time of the E-wave velocity, e’ lat early diastolic mitral annular velocity free LV wall, e’ med early diastolic mitral annular velocity septal)