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Table 3 Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value and accuracy of the Chest X-ray, Boston score (points 8–12), lung, heart and IVC ultrasound and their combinations in the diagnosis of dyspnea of cardiac origin

From: Diagnostic performance of multi-organ ultrasound with pocket-sized device in the management of acute dyspnea

Parameter Sensitivity (%) Specificity (%) PPV (%) NPV (%) Accuracy (%)
Chest X-ray 75 (52.9–89.3) 85.4 (70.1–93.9) 75 (52.9–89.4) 85.4 (70.1–93.9) 82
Boston score (points 8–12) 79.2 (57.3–92) 70.7 (54.3–83.3) 61.3 (42.3–77.6) 85.3 (68.2–94.4) 74
IS/ effusion 92,6 (74.2–98.7) 80,5 (64.6–90.6) 75,8 (57.4–88.2) 94,3 (79.5–99) 85,3
IVC dilated and not collapsing 65,4 (44.3–82) 88,2 (71.6–96.2) 81 (57.4–93.7) 76,9 (60.2–88.2) 78,3
EF ≤ 40% 66,7 (46–82.7) 87,2 (71.7–95.2) 78,3 (55.8–91.7) 79,1 (63.5–89.4) 78,8
IS/effusion OR IVC dilated and not collapsing 100 (84.4–100) 71.4 (53.4–84.7) 72.9 (55.6–85.6) 100 (83.4–100) 85
IS/effusion OR EF ≤ 40% 92,3 (74.2–98.7) 70,7 (54.3–83.3) 67.5 (50.1–81.4) 93.5 (77.2–98.9) 80
IS/effusion AND IVC dilated and not collapsing 57,7 (37.2–76) 94,1 (78.9–98.9) 88,2 (62.2–97.9) 74,4 (58.6–86) 78,3
IS/effusion AND EF ≤ 40% 66.6 (46–82.7) 97,5 (85.5–99.8) 94,7 (71.8–99.7) 81.6 (71.8–99.7) 85
IS/effusion AND EF ≤ ≤40% AND IVC dilated and not collapsing 40.7 (23–60.9) 97,6 (85.6–99.8) 91,6 (59.7–99.5) 71.4 (57.6–82.3) 73,3
IS/effusion AND (EF ≤ 40% OR IVC dilated and not collapsing) 81.4 (61.2–92.3) 95.1 (82.2–99.2) 91.7 (71.6–98.6) 88.6 (74.6–95.7) 90
  1. PPV Positive Predictive Value, NPV Negative Predictive Value, IS Bilateral and symmetrical Interstitial Syndrome, IVC Inferior Vena Cava, EF Ejection Fraction