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Table 1 Major anatomical differences between porcine and human hearts

From: Feasibility of basic transesophageal echocardiography in hemorrhagic shock: potential applications during resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta (REBOA)

Features Porcine Heart Human Heart
Shape and Orientation “Valentine shaped heart” which is oriented in line with the unguligrade stance of the pig “Trapezoidal” shaped heart oriented in line with the orthograde posture of the human being
Presence of tubular appendage Observed in the right atrium Observed in the left atrium
Vena cava orientation The superior and inferior vena cava opens into the right atrium at right angles to each other The superior and inferior vena cava open into the right atrium in a straight line at 180 degrees
Pulmonary veins Left atrium receives 2 pulmonary veins Left atrium receives 4 pulmonary veins
Muscular moderator in right ventricle Prominent and situated more superior in the right ventricle Less prominent and situated more inferior in the right ventricle
Characteristic of Apical components Contains coarse and broad trabeculations Trabeculations are absent and apex is narrower
Aortic-Mitral fibrous continuity Reduced as 2/3RD of aortic valve is supported by left ventricular musculature Not reduced
Coronary Dominance Left anterior descending coronary artery dominant Right coronary dominant
Difference in right and left atrio-ventricular branches Right atrio-ventricular branches are less developed than left-sided equivalents No major differences exist between the right and left atrio-ventricular branches