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Table 2 Echocardiographic parameters presented in all different examiner-analyst scenarios

From: Global longitudinal strain is a more reproducible measure of left ventricular function than ejection fraction regardless of echocardiographic training

Scenario GLS LVEF
Expert echocardiographer
A Trainee analyst −19.1% (±3.4) 54.5% (±8.2)  
Expert analyst −18.7% (±3.2) 53.6% (±8.6)  
ICC 0.94 (0.84–0.97) 0.71 (0.47–0.84) 4.04 (p < 0.001) †
Fixed bias −0.76% (−3.55–2.03) −0.27% (−16.56–16.02) 0.40 (p = 0.692) *
Trainee echocardiographer
B Trainee analyst −19.4% (±3.5) 50.3% (±8.2)  
Expert analyst −18.3% (±3.5) 52.1% (±8.9)  
ICC 0.91 (0.72–0.96) 0.76 (0.57–0.87) 2.49 (p < 0.001) †
Fixed bias 1.19% (−4.61–2.22) −1.4% (−15.79–12.98) 2.36 (p < 0.02) *
Each operator analyzing their own images
C Trainee −19.4% (±3.5) 50.3% (±8.2)  
Expert −18.7% (±3.2) 53.6% (±8.6)  
ICC 0.89 (0.74–0.95) 0.63 (0.32–0.80) 3.26 (p < 0.001) †
Fixed bias −0.97% (−4.58–2.64) −4.08% (−20.78–12.62) 2.45 (p < 0.02) *
Trainee analyst
D Trainee Images −19.4% (±3.5) 50.3% (±8.2)  
Expert images −19.1% (±3.4) 54.5% (±8.2)  
ICC 0.93 (0.88–0.96) 0.13 (−0.45–0.49) 7.17 (< 0.001) †
Fixed bias 0.21% (−4.58–2.64) −4.08% (−20.78–12.62) − 0.02 (p = 0.98) *
Expert analyst
E Trainee Images −18.3% (±3.5) 52.1% (±8.9)  
Expert images −18.3% (±3.2) 53.6% (±8.6)  
ICC 0.91 (0.84–0.95) 0.70 (0.47–0.83) 3.1 (0.002) †
Fixed bias 0,07 (−3.64–3.78) −2.17 (−18.16–13.82) 1.84 (p = 0.07) *
Trainee imaging versus expert imaging
F   EDD E/e’  
ICC 0.91 (0.85–0.95) 0.92 (0.85–0.95)  
Fixed bias −0.43 mm 0.25  
  1. Continuous data are presented as mean ± SD; GLS = global longitudinal strain, LVEF = left ventricular ejection fraction, EDD = left ventricle end diastolic diameter, E/e’ = early transmitral diastolic inflow divided by early diastolic mitral annular velocity, ICC = intra class correlation coefficient (95% confidence interval) compared with Z-score (†). Fixed bias, mean difference (95% confidence interval) compared with paired samples T-test (*). Results in this table are stratified in scenario A-E describing who obtained images and who performed the analysis. Results from comparing GLS and LVEF in each scenario are presented in the Z-score column. Parameters of diastolic function are listed in section F