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Table 2 Effects of age and gender on reference limits – left ventricle

From: Normative reference ranges for echocardiographic chamber dimensions in a healthy Central European population: results from the Czech post-MONICA survey

Variable Age effect (per 10 years) Age effect
p value
Gender effect (male vs. female) Gender effect
p value
Left ventricular dimensions
 2D method
  LV end-diastolic diameter (mm) −0.7 [−1.0, − 0.3] 0.001 5.6 [4.3, 7.0] <  0.001
  LV end-diastolic diameter, BSA (mm/m2) −0.4 [− 0.8, − 0.1] 0.021 − 1.4 [− 2.5, − 0.4] 0.007
 M-mode method
  LV end-diastolic diameter (mm) 0.5 [− 0.1, 1.2] 0.113 5.4 [4.0, 6.8] <  0.001
  LV end-diastolic diameter, BSA (mm/m2) 0.3 [−0.1, 0.7] 0.107 −1.3 [−2.1, − 0.4] 0.004
  LV end-systolic diameter (mm) 0.7 [− 0.2, 1.6] 0.114 4.1 [1.9, 6.2] <  0.001
  LV end-systolic diameter, BSA (mm/m2) 0.4 [−0.1, 0.9] 0.109 −0.4 [−1.5, 0.7] 0.469
LV mass and wall thickness
 2D method
  Interventricular septum (mm) 0.5 [0.1, 0.8] 0.011 1.3 [0.4, 2.3] 0.004
  LV Posterior wall (mm) 0.4 [0.2, 0.6] <  0.001 1.5 [1.0, 2.0] <  0.001
  LV mass, BSA (g/m2) 4.2 [2.1, 6.4] <  0.001 23.5 [18.4, 28.6] <  0.001
 M-mode method
  Interventricular septum (mm) 0.6 [0.3, 0.9] <  0.001 1.7 [0.9, 2.5] <  0.001
  LV Posterior wall (mm) 0.6 [0.4, 0.8] <  0.001 1.6 [1.1, 2.0] <  0.001
  LV mass, BSA (g/m2) 7.1 [3.2, 11.1] <  0.001 22.6 [10.6, 34.5] <  0.001
  LV mass, height2.7 (g/m) 4.2 [2.2, 6.2] <  0.001 4.8 [−0.2, 9.8] 0.060
LV volumes and function
 LV end-diastolic volume (ml) −6.6 [− 10.0, −3.1] <  0.001 35.4 [25.1, 45.6] <  0.001
 LV end-diastolic volume, BSA (ml/m2) −3.1 [− 6.5, 0.4] 0.081 8.4 [0.9, 16.0] 0.029
 LV end-systolic volume (ml) −3.6 [−5.0, −2.1] <  0.001 23.2 [19.4, 27.0] <  0.001
 LV end-systolic volume, BSA (ml/m2) −2.1 [−3.5, − 0.8] 0.002 6.4 [2.9, 9.9] <  0.001
 LV ejection fraction (%) 1.4 [− 0.1, 2.9] 0.059 − 1.6 [−5.7, 2.6] 0.455
 Mitral septal s’ (cm/s) − 0.2 [− 0.4, − 0.1] 0.001 −0.1 [− 0.4, 0.3] 0.658
 Mitral lateral s’ (cm/s) − 0.3 [− 0.5, − 0.1] 0.002 0.4 [− 0.1, 0.8] 0.162
  1. Values depict effect size on reference limit (95th or 5th percentile of the healthy subset) with 95% confidence interval
  2. BSA body surface area, LV left ventricle