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Table 4 Reference limits for left ventricular measurements

From: Normative reference ranges for echocardiographic chamber dimensions in a healthy Central European population: results from the Czech post-MONICA survey

Variable Males Females
Abnormal Moderately abnormal Severely abnormal Abnormal Moderately abnormal Severely abnormal
LV dimensions
 2D method
  LV end-diastolic diameter (mm) >  56 >  60 >  63 >  51 >  56 >  58
  LV end-diastolic diameter, BSA (mm/m2) >  28 >  30 >  31 >  30 >  31 >  32
 M-mode method
  LV end-diastolic diameter (mm) >  60 >  64 >  66 >  55 >  59 >  63
  VLV end-diastolic diameter, BSA (mm/m2) >  31 >  32 >  33 >  32 >  33 >  34
  LV end-systolic diameter (mm) >  40 >  44 >  49 >  36 >  39 >  41
  LV end-systolic diameter, BSA (mm/m2) >  20 >  21 >  23 >  21 (>  21)a (>  23)a
LV mass and wall thickness
 2D method
  Interventricular septum (mm) >  11.5 >  14.0 >  15.0 >  10.3 >  12.3 >  13.3
  Posterior wall (mm) >  10.7 >  12.3 >  13.0 >  9.3 >  11.0 >  11.7
  LV mass, BSA (g/m2) >  107 >  130 >  138 >  82 >  111 >  128
 M-mode method
  Interventricular septum (mm) >  12.7 >  14.3 >  15.0 >  11.0 >  12.7 >  13.7
  Posterior wall (mm) >  11.0 >  13.3 >  14.0 >  9.7 >  11.5 >  12.3
  LV mass, BSA (g/m2) >  122 >  147 >  167 >  104 >  129 >  141
  LV mass, height2.7 (g/m) >  53 >  68 >  76 >  47 >  69 >  76
LV volumes and function
 LV end-diastolic volume (ml) >  150 >  181 >  205 >  109 >  136 >  157
 LV end-diastolic volume, BSA (ml/m2) >  73 >  85 >  94 >  63 >  73 >  85
 LV end-systolic volume (ml) >  69 >  81 >  99 >  44 >  56 >  71
 LV end-systolic volume, BSA (ml/m2) >  33 >  39 >  46 >  25 >  30 >  37
 LV ejection fraction (%) <  50 <  46 <  42 <  53 <  50 <  47
 Mitral septal s’ (cm/s) <  6.0 <  5.0 <  4.3 <  6.0 <  5.0 <  4.3
 Mitral lateral s’ (cm/s) <  6.3 <  5.0 <  4.3 <  6.0 <  5.3 <  5.0
  1. Mildly abnormal is defined as >95th or < 5th percentile of the healthy subset, moderately abnormal as > 97.5th or < 2.5th percentile and severely abnormal as >99th or < 1st percentile of the whole sample
  2. BSA body surface area, LV left ventricle
  3. aNot recommended due to negligible difference between the healthy subset and general population, see Limitations