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Table 2 Echocardiographic data of the study groups

From: Usefulness of tissue Doppler-derived atrial electromechanical delay for identifying patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation

Parameters Healthy controls
(n = 50)
Disease controls
(n = 33)
PAF patients
(n = 63)
P
LA diameter (mm) 32 ± 5 40 ± 7† 43 ± 7† < 0.001
LA volume (mL) 32 ± 10 44 ± 10† 49 ± 15† < 0.001
LA volume index (mL/m2) 19 ± 6 27 ± 5† 28 ± 9† < 0.001
LV end-diastolic dimension (mm) 42 ± 5 47 ± 7† 49 ± 7† < 0.001
LV ejection fraction (%) 65 ± 5 61 ± 12 62 ± 8 0.088
Thickness of IVS (mm) 9 ± 1 10 ± 2† 10 ± 2† < 0.001
Thickness of posterior wall (mm) 9 ± 1 10 ± 1† 9 ± 2†§ < 0.001
LV mass (g) 120 ± 29 177 ± 65† 171 ± 65† < 0.001
LV mass index (g/m2) 73 ± 14 108 ± 33† 98 ± 30† < 0.001
LV hypertrophy (%) 0 (0) 17 (52) 17 (27) < 0.001
E velocity (cm/s) 63 ± 13 60 ± 23 64 ± 17 0.59
A velocity (cm/s) 71 ± 20 80 ± 25 61 ± 23*‡ 0.001
E/A 0.95 ± 0.33 0.83 ± 0.46* 1.21 ± 0.56*‡ < 0.001
Deceleration time (ms) 213 ± 56 224 ± 68 205 ± 70 0.41
E’, septal (ms) 7.7 ± 2.3 6.1 ± 2.5† 7.7 ± 2.4‡ < 0.001
E’, lateral (ms) 10.3 ± 3.1 7.4 ± 2.9† 9.5 ± 2.8‡ < 0.001
Averaged E’ (ms) 9.0 ± 2.5 6.7 ± 2.6† 8.6 ± 2.3‡ < 0.001
A’, septal (ms) 10.0 ± 1.7 8.8 ± 2.2* 7.6 ± 2.6†§ < 0.001
A’, lateral (ms) 10.8 ± 2.5 9.5 ± 2.6* 8.0 ± 3.0†§ < 0.001
Averaged A’ (ms) 10.4 ± 1.8 9.2 ± 2.3* 7.8 ± 2.7†§ < 0.001
Averaged E/E’, 7.4 ± 2.3 10.0 ± 5.4 7.9 ± 2.8 0.086
Averaged E’/A’ 0.90 ± 0.33 0.79 ± 0.42 1.27 ± 0.63†‡ < 0.001
  1. Values are mean (±SD) or number of subjects (%)
  2. IVS Indicates interventricular septum
  3. *P < 0.05 and †P < 0.01 vs Healthy controls; §P < 0.05 and ‡P < 0.01 vs Disease controls